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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Atiqah Salleh
Definition: Silver (Ag) is a chemical element that has provided promising results in various fields such as medicine, electronics, and household applications, e.g., silver sulfadiazine has been used as a standard treatment for burn wounds to prevent the formation of biofilm on the wound area, thus enhancing the wound recovery progress. Silver is a part of transition metals and has been classified as a precious metal due to its decreasing availability. Silver has interesting properties, yet the uses of the materials are limited due to silver instability towards oxygen. Silver metal will oxidize spontaneously when exposed to free oxygen molecules. In these past few years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies which lead to substantial progress in the production of nanomaterials. Thus, it had made possible to produce silver in nanoscale and these emerging nanoparticle products have attracted interest due to their physical, chemical, and biological properties in comparison with their macro-scaled counterparts. These properties are being assessed through various analytical techniques.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Duangkamon Baowan
Definition: After the discovery of circular formations of single walled carbon nanotubes called fullerene crop circles, their structure has become one of the most researched amongst carbon nanostructures due to their particular interesting physical properties. Several experiments and simulations have been conducted to understand these intriguing objects, including their formation and their hidden characteristics. It is scientifically conceivable that these crop circles, nowadays referred to as carbon nanotori, can be formed by experimentally bending carbon nanotubes into ring shaped structures or by connecting several sections of carbon nanotubes. Toroidal carbon nanotubes are likely to have many applications, especially in electricity and magnetism. In this review, geometry, construction, modelling and possible applications are discussed and the existing known analytical expressions, as obtained from the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approximation, for their interaction energies with other nanostructures are summarised.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Shyam Mohapatra
Definition: The burgeoning field of nanotechnology aims to create and deploy nanoscale structures, devices, and systems with novel, size-dependent properties and functions. The nanotechnology revolution has sparked radically new technologies and strategies across all scientific disciplines, with nanotechnology now applied to virtually every area of research and development in the US and globally. NanoFlorida was founded to create a forum for scientific exchange, promote networking among nanoscientists, encourage collaborative research efforts across institutions, forge strong industry-academia partnerships in nanoscience, and showcase the contributions of students and trainees in nanotechnology fields. The 2019 NanoFlorida International Conference expanded this vision to emphasize national and international participation, with a focus on advances made in translating nanotechnology. This review highlights notable research in the areas of engineering especially in optics, photonics and plasmonics and electronics; biomedical devices, nano-biotechnology, nanotherapeutics including both experimental nanotherapies and nanovaccines; nano-diagnostics and -theranostics; nano-enabled drug discovery platforms; tissue engineering, bioprinting, and environmental nanotechnology, as well as challenges and directions for future research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Arunas Ramanavicius
Definition: Amperometric biosensors and biofuel cells are mostly based on immobilized enzymes or living cells. Among the many oxidoreductases, glucose oxidase (GOx) is used mostly in biosensor design. The same GOx can be well applied for the development of biofuel cells and self-charging capacitors based on the operation of biofuel cells.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Mosab Kaseem
Definition: This entry presents an overview of the recent developments in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) on the anodized films of Mg alloys prepared by either conventional anodizing or plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and the applications of the formed composite ceramics as smart chloride traps in corrosive environments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Biao Ren
Definition: Caries is the most common and extensive oral chronic disease. Due to the lack of anti-caries properties, traditional caries filling materials can easily cause secondary caries and lead to treatment failure. Nanomaterials can interfere with the bacteria metabolism, inhibit the formation of biofilm, reduce demineralization, and promote remineralization, which is expected to be an effective strategy for caries management.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2020
Submitted by: James Ede
Definition: This review outlines the current status and next steps for the development and use of the AOP framework in decision making regarding the safety of MNs. Opportunities and challenges toward the advancement and adoption of AOPs as part of an integrated approach to testing and assessment (IATA) of MNs are identified and specific actions proposed to advance the development, use and acceptance of the AOP framework and associated testing strategies for MN risk assessment and decision making. The intent of this review is to reflect the views of a diversity of stakeholders including experts, researchers, policymakers, regulators, risk assessors and industry representatives on the current status, needs and requirements to facilitate future use of AOPs in MN risk assessment. It incorporates the views and feedback of experts that participated in two workshops hosted as part of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) project titled, “Advancing AOP Development for Nanomaterial Risk Assessment and Categorization” as well as the position of several EU-funded nanosafety research consortia.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Helena Felgueiras
Definition: Wound healing requires careful, directed, and effective therapies to prevent infections and accelerate tissue regeneration. In light of these demands, active biomolecules with antibacterial properties and/or healing capacities have been functionalized onto nanostructured polymeric dressings and their synergistic effect examined. In this work, various antibiotics, nanoparticles, and natural extract-derived products that were used in association with electrospun nanocomposites containing cellulose, cellulose acetate and different types of nanocellulose (cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils, and bacterial cellulose) have been reviewed. The impact of these combinations in wound healing are here examined and explored.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Krzysztof Bielec
Definition: Bacteriophages (phages for short) are viruses, which have bacteria as hosts. The single phage body virion, is a colloidal particle, often possessing a dipole moment. As such, phages were used as perfectly monodisperse systems to study various physicochemical phenomena (e.g., transport or sedimentation in complex fluids), or in the material science (e.g., as scaffolds). Nevertheless, phages also execute the life cycle to multiply and produce progeny virions. Upon completion of the life cycle of phages, the host cells are usually destroyed. Natural abilities to bind to and kill bacteria were a starting point for utilizing phages in phage therapies (i.e., medical treatments that use phages to fight bacterial infections) and for bacteria detection. Numerous applications of phages became possible thanks to phage display—a method connecting the phenotype and genotype, which allows for selecting specific peptides or proteins with affinity to a given target.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Fei Han
Definition: Based on the ingenious design and distinguished performance of the reported flexible strain sensors, there are a great deal of applications that have been demonstrated for various occasions. The in vitro detections for human health and implantable in vivo devices for biomedical engineering, as well as human-machine interface and soft robotics applications are reviewed.
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