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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Niels Grigat
Definition: 3D braiding technologies enable the production of structures with complex geometry, which are often used for lightweight solutions, for example in automotive engineering. In addition, medical technology offers wide-ranging applications for 3D braiding technology. 3D braided structures are defined as those with yarns that intersect in all three spatial directions. 3D braiding processes allow the fiber orientation to be easily influenced, thus ensuring high strength and stiffness with reduced mass.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Soon Hee Kim
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Anne-Marie Caminade
Definition: AB5 compounds issued from the reactivity of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene are relatively easy to obtain using two ways: either first the reaction of one chloride with one reagent, followed by the reaction of the five remaining Cl with another reagent, or first the reaction of five chlorides with one reagent, followed by the reaction of the single remaining Cl with another reagent. This particular property led to the use of such compounds as core for the synthesis of dendrons (dendritic wedges), using the five functions for growing the dendritic branches. The single function can be used for the synthesis of diverse types of dendrimers (onion peel, dumbbell-shape, Janus), for covalent or non-covalent grafting to solid surfaces, providing nanomaterials, for grafting a fluorophore, especially for studying biological mechanisms, or for self-associations to get micelles.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Definition: Acrylic bone cements (ABC) are widely used in orthopedics for joint fixation, antibiotic release, and bone defect filling, among others. Most of the commercial ABCs available today consist of two components, one solid, based mainly on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and one liquid, based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), which are mixed and, through the polymerization reaction of the monomer, transformed into a hardened cement paste.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Carina Costa
Definition: Lignocellulosic biomass, including hardwood, softwood, and herbaceous crops, is an abundant renewable resource mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The typical lignin content may vary from 18 to 33% in softwoods, 15 to 30% in hardwoods, and 5 to 30% in herbaceous crops. However, most biorefineries are currently focused on the valorization of cellulose and hemicellulose, a so-called sugar-based platform. In this context, lignin is usually considered as a low-value residual product and has significant potential as a renewable resource to produce bio-based materials, fuels, and valuable chemicals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Ekaterina Mikhailova
Definition: Elementary silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of great interest because of their various probable medical application. Due to their antimicrobial activity, low toxicity and inexpensive cost, the mechanism of silver nanoparticles biosynthesis in bacterial, fungal and plant cells is extremely exciting from the point of view of the different cellular compounds participation in it: proteins, enzymes, acids, etc.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Kuo-Ning Chiang
Definition: Many researchers have adopted the finite-element-based design-on-simulation (DoS) technology for the reliability assessment of electronic packaging. DoS technology can effectively shorten the design cycle, reduce costs, and effectively optimize the packaging structure. However, the simulation analysis results are highly dependent on the individual researcher and are usually inconsistent between them. Artificial intelligence (AI) can help researchers avoid the shortcomings of the human factor.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Alessandro Parodi
Definition: Albumin nanovectors represent one of the most promising carriers recently generated because of the cost-effectiveness of their fabrication, biocompatibility, safety, and versatility in delivering hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics and diagnostic agents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 May 2021
Submitted by: Qiang Ao
Definition: Alginates are naturally occurring polysaccharides extracted from brown marine algae and bacteria. Being biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic and easy to gel, alginates can be processed into various forms, such as hydrogels, microspheres, fibers and sponges, and have been widely applied in biomedical field.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Narcisse Joseph
Definition: Garlic (Allium sativum) is an ancient civilised plant, originated from the Asian continent between the Mediterranean and China over 600 years ago. Humans use garlic as a medicinal herb in food as well as to relieve from pain and physical and emotional stress. Currently, people are looking for alternative natural medicine.
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