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Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Young Park
Definition: Cows’ milk generally contains two major types of beta-casein as A1 and A2 types, although there are 13 genetic variants of β-casein: A1, A2, A3, A4, B, C, D, E, F, H1, H2, I and G. Studies have shown that A1 β-casein may be harmful, and A2 β-casein is a safer choice for human health especially in infant nutrition and health. The A2 cow milk is reportedly easier to digest and better absorb than A1 or other types of milk. The structure of A2 cow’s milk protein is more comparable to human breast milk, as well as milk from goats, sheep and buffalo. Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) is considered a common milk digestive and metabolic disorder or allergic disease with various levels of prevalence from 2.5% in children during the first 3 years of life to 12–30% in infants less than 3 months old, and it can go up to even as high as 20% in some countries. CMPA is an IgE-mediated allergy where the body starts to produce IgE antibodies against certain protein (allergens) such as A1 milk and αs1-casein in bovine milk. Studies have shown that ingestion of β-casein A1 milk can cause ischemic heart disease, type-1 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, etc. The knowledge of bovine A2 milk and caprine αs2-casein has been utilized to rescue CMPA patients and other potential disease problems.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Definition: Acrylamide is a contaminant as defined in Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 and as such, it is considered a chemical hazard in the food chain. The toxicity of acrylamide has been acknowledged since 2002, among its toxicological effects on humans being neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. Acrylamide has been classified as carcinogenic in the 2A group, with human exposure leading to progressive degeneration of the peripheral and central nervous systems characterized by cognitive and motor abnormalities. Bakery products (bread, crispbread, cakes, batter, breakfast cereals, biscuits, pies, etc.) are some of the major sources of dietary acrylamide.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Aleksandra Golonko
Definition: Natural carboxylic acids described in this paper are plant-derived compounds having biological activity. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the physicochemical properties of selected compounds naturally occurring in plants, their potential of microbiological and anticancer activity. In order to create targeted modifications of the structure enhancing its activity, it is; therefore, necessary to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of action of a given molecule under systemic conditions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Choon Young Kim
Definition: The role of brown adipocytes in thermogenesis is a potential target for preventing obesity. Obesity results from adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia caused by a severe energy imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. To achieve both safety and multifunctionality, many in vitro and in vivo studies have focused on finding food extracts or natural products for stimulating adipocyte browning (elevating beige adipocyte differentiation and functions) and combating obesity and related metabolic diseases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Antonello Santini
Definition: Aflatoxins family includes a great number of lipophilic molecules produced by aerobic micro fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the microfungi.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Aránzazu Bocanegra
Definition: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major systemic disease which involves impaired pancreatic function and currently affects half a billion people worldwide. Diet is considered the cornerstone to reduce incidence and prevalence of this disease. Algae contains fiber, polyphenols, ω-3 PUFAs, and bioactive molecules with potential antidiabetic activity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Submitted by: Slaven Jurić
Definition: Encapsulation into biopolymer microparticles ensures the protection and targeted delivery of active agents while offering controlled release with higher efficiency and environmental safety for ecological and sustainable plant production. Encapsulation of biological agents provides protection and increases its survivability while providing an environment safe for growth. The application of microparticles loaded with chemical and biological agents presents an innovative way to stimulate plant metabolites synthesis. This enhances plants’ defense against pests and pathogens and results in the production of higher quality food (i.e., higher plant metabolites share). Ionic gelation was presented as a sustainable method in developing biopolymeric microparticles based on the next-generation biopolymers alginate and chitosan.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Adrián Rabadán
Definition: This entry is about Non-Lipid Components and Minor Fat-Soluble Bioactive Compounds of Almond Kernel.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Mar 2021
Definition: Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a tree species that together with peach is included in the subgenus Amygdalus.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Nov 2020
Definition: Alpha-emitting radioisotopes are the most radiotoxic nuclides among all radionuclides. Especially medium- and long-living isotopes that enter the body, are hazardous metals of the greatest importance from the human life point of view. This review focuses on the most common natural and anthropogenic origin alpha-emitting radionuclides in wild mushrooms around the world. Mushrooms are considered as suitable bioindicators of environmental pollution with some metallic elements, for the reason they bioaccumulate a range of mineral ionic constituents including radioactive elements at different levels. Various species have different retain capacities of individual radionuclides. In turn, wild edible mushrooms are food products, mostly consumed regionally and also traded at an international scale. Mushrooms under pollution events situation might cause a risk to consumers due to exposure to highly radiotoxic decay particles produced by alpha emitters.
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