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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Michelle Szydlowski
Definition: Anthrozoology is the interdisciplinary study of relationships between humans and other animals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Rosanna Marsella
Definition: Atopic dermatitis is one of the manifestations of atopic disease. In people, dermatitis is typically the first manifestation of atopic disease and can be followed by respiratory disease later in life as part of what is called the “atopic march”. Atopic dermatitis affects people and animals and, in some species (e.g., dogs), is the most prevalent manifestation of atopic disease. Atopic dermatitis in dogs has become increasingly common as exposure to indoor environments and processed foods has increased in our pets. Canine atopic dermatitis has characteristics, both clinically and immunologically, that are strikingly similar to the human counterpart. In dogs, progression to respiratory signs has been described in colonies of atopic dogs, but it does not seem to be a common observation in clinical practice.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Jihane HAMDI
Definition: Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox, and goatpox are notifiable diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus genus. They are responsible for both direct and indirect financial losses. These losses arise through animal mortality, morbidity cost of vaccinations, and constraints to animals and animal products’ trade. Control and eradication of capripoxviruses depend on early detection of outbreaks, vector control, strict animal movement, and vaccination which remains the most effective means of control. To date, live attenuated vaccines are widely used; however, conferred protection remains controversial. Many vaccines have been associated with adverse reactions and incomplete protection in sheep, goats, and cattle. Many combination- and recombinant-based vaccines have also been developed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Justyn Gach
Definition: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common canine heart disease in which, among other things, chordae tendineae rupture occurs. The Chordae tendineae (CT) are part of the atrioventricular apparatus. They are mainly responsible for the mechanical functions of heart valves. In our study we performed biomechanical and histopathological examination of CT in order to better understand the functioning of the valvular apparatus.It is clinically relevant to begin further studies about biomarkers suggesting an episode of CT rupture, as such an episode leads to acute pulmonary oedema and worsens the clinical status of the patient.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Akhtar Ali
Definition: Plant bioactive compounds, such as phytochemicals, in poultry diets, are gaining popularity due to their potential antioxidant and anti-microbial activities. Phytogenic feed additives (PFAs) have emerged as natural alternatives to antibiotic growth promotors and have great potential in the poultry industry. In recent years, cinnamon (one of the most widely used spices) has attracted attention from researchers as a natural product with numerous health benefits for poultry. The essential oils in cinnamon, in particular, are of interest because of their antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and hypocholesterolaemic effects, in addition to their ability to stimulate digestive enzymes in the gut. This review mainly emphasizes the potential impact of cinnamon as a natural feed additive on overall gut health, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical profile, gene expression, gut microbiota and immune response.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Charlotte Lauridsen
Definition: Colitis-complex diarrhea (CCD) in pigs can be defined as a type of diarrhea, which is associated with colonic inflammation and disrupted colonic gut barrier functionality as well as infiltration of neutrophils at the inflamed colon in growing pigs (8–16 weeks of age) and can bear large costs on the pig farms. The exact etiology of CCD is still unclear; however, pathogens including Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, and swine whipworms such as Trichuris (T.) suis have been involved in specific colitis (SC). In the absence of specific pathogens, dietary factors, such as high levels of protein, pelleted feedstuffs, and lack of sufficient antioxidants, can result in non-specific colitis (NSC). On the other hand, supplement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols, sufficient supply of essential amino acids (e.g., threonine, cysteine, and proline), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; especially butyrate), and resistant starch have shown to confer preventing/ameliorating effects on CCD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Definition: Endometrial infections are a common cause of reproductive loss in cattle. Accurate diagnosis is important to reduce the economic losses caused by endometritis. A range of sampling procedures have been developed which enable collection of endometrial tissue or luminal cells or uterine fluid. However, as these are all invasive procedures, there is a risk that sampling around the time of breeding may adversely affect subsequent pregnancy rate.
Topic review
Updated time: 04 Jun 2021
Definition: During the prenatal, neonatal, and weaning periods, the porcine gastrointestinal tract undergoes several morpho-functional, changes together with substantial modification of the microbial ecosystem. Modifications of the overall structure of the small intestine also occur, as well as a rapid increase of the volume, mainly in the last period of gestation: intestinal villi, starting from jejunum, appears shortly before the sixth week of gestation, and towards the end of the third month, epithelial cells diversify into enterocytes, goblet cells, endocrine, and Paneth cells. Moreover, in the neonatal period, colostrum induces an increase in intestinal weight, absorptive area, and brush border enzyme activities: intestine doubles its weight and increases the length by 30% within three days of birth.
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Videos
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mark Chambers
Definition: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) in diverse hosts, including captive and free-ranging wildlife species. There is significant research interest in developing immunodiagnostic tests for TB that are both rapid and reliable, to underpin disease surveillance and control.
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