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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jan 2022
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Definition: An optimized formal design of Bricks to achieve sustainability in the use of materials and were achieved by using a bottom-up methodology of biolearning to extract the formal grammar of the bricks that is suitable for their various applications in the built environment as building units, thereby realizing the concept of formal physiology, as well as employing the concept of fractality or pixilation by using 3D printing to create the bricks as building units on an architectural scale. This enables the adoption of this method as an alternative construction procedure instead of conventional clay brick and full-scale 3D printing of architecture on a wider and more democratic scale, avoiding the high costs of 3D printing machines and lengthy processes of the one-step, 3D-printed, full-scale architecture, while also guaranteeing minimum material consumption and maximum forma–function coherency. The “Biodigital Barcelona Clay Bricks” were developed using Rhinoceros 3D and Grasshopper 3D + Plugins (Anemone and Kangaroo) and were 3D printed in clay.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Aug 2021
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Definition: Significant architectural and historical monuments become an important point of reference for the local population, increasing their sense of security, and act as a factor shaping social identity. An effort to preserve relevant objects in a city is therefore important both for retaining its unique features and for strengthening the local community. A significant role plays here the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage, which allows for the preservation of architectural objects that are important to the local community, promoting the integrity and historical continuity of the city while restoring the objects’ functional and economic value. The introduction of a new function in architectural heritage is not only an important impulse for the tangible regeneration of urban tissue, but can also help to reconstruct the image and identity of a city. The local cultural and architectural heritage plays a significant role in the process leading to the creation of positive references and elimination of negative connotations related to an economic or social crisis. These remain an important part of the history of a city and, at the same time, its significance may be reimagined and shown in a new context, that relates to the present day. As a result, artefacts of the past gain new meanings, which are subject to a different, contemporary interpretation through the prism of current needs and ideas. Objects or even groups of objects from the past are being consciously taken into consideration in the activities currently undertaken. The contemporary scale of the phenomenon and complexity of the issues concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage are a consequence of the multi-faceted transformations that have taken place in recent decades in the social, cultural and economic spheres, and, consequently, the contemporary understanding of the role and significance of the architectural heritage.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
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Definition: Aerogel has entered the construction field in the last two decades as a component of many insulation products, due to its high thermal performance. Aerogel-based plasters allow the matching of high thermal performance and limited thickness. This makes them suitable when retrofitting an existing building and also when restoring a heritage building. This entry presents the state of the art of the research on aerogel-based plasters as a part of the aerogel-products for the building sector.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Dec 2021
Definition: Architectural reprogramming is recognized as a growing, analytical and problem-based approach in the design process in which the subject of design/redesign is an entity of urban or architectural heritage. The ''RE'' nature of architectural programming encourage its new rehabilitation from a strictly developmental perspective to one that deals with creating a new functional order within the existing inherited spatial framework with the aim to provide a sustainable configuration of activities, spaces and relationships.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2021
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Definition: Once a GM crop has completed the full review cycle for environmental safety, food and feed safety, and DUS/VCU testing, further steps are required to ensure its launch as a new variety for cultivation and safeguarding its sustainability. Again, policy considerations and necessary policy reforms are involved in these final stages, which are analyzed in the sections below. Prior to the planting of GM crop varieties in farmers’ fields, either from domestically produced or imported seeds, they will have to be authorized as certified seed or quality-declared seed in most SSA countries.
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Others
Updated time: 03 Dec 2021
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Abstract: Existing frameworks for biophilic design have similar strategies and attributes as useful checklists for designers; however, the focus has been on adults rather than children, and there remains the need for more guidance related to school design by extension. The application of biophilia would be a design resolution in schools because of its impact on children’s health and well-being, which has been more important since the pandemic started; however, it remains quite unexplored in school design in many countries, including the UK. Biophilic design patterns can be used in school buildings and grounds for greater connectivity between spaces and nature in order to promote children’s well-being.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2021
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Definition: A consequence of urbanization was the intensification of urban heat islands, especially in tropical cities. There have been rapid developments in infrastructure that have displaced open spaces.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2020
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Definition: The circular economy in the building sector is an approach aiming at minimizing waste and emissions, as well as closing water, energy, and material loops. Under a circular built environment, landfilling is no longer an option to handle construction and demolition waste, and design for disassembly has a central role. Design for disassembly is a concept in which buildings and products are designed intentionally for material recovery, value retention, and meaningful next use.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
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Definition: The designs generated by computer algorithms are becoming such a serious part of designers’ work that some are beginning to question whether they are more the work of computers than humans. There are also increasing suggestions that software development will eventually lead to a situation where humans in the profession will become redundant. This review article aims to present the currently used, implemented, and planned computer technologies employed in the design and consider how they affect and will affect the work of architects in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
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Definition: Historic urban landscapes (HULs) are composed of layers of imbedded tangible and intangible features such as cultural memories. As the collective memories of city inhabitants, cultural memories can affect elements of social sustainability such as health, well-being, community identity, place perception and social engagement. This topic review points to the value of recalling cultural memory features in HULs, which can be used to achieve social sustainability. In addition, it contributes to sustainable development through the contribution of cultural memory and its influence on the formation of place identity, sense of place, civic pride and quality of life in HULs.
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