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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michael McAleer
Definition: Many academics are critical of the current publishing system, but it is difficult to create a better alternative. The perspective relates to the sciences and social sciences, and discusses the primary purpose of academic journals as providing a seal of approval for perceived quality, impact, significance, and importance. The key issues considered include the role of anonymous refereeing, continuous rather than discrete frequency of publications, avoidance of time wasting, and seeking adventure. Here we give recommendations about the organization of journal articles, the roles of associate editors and referees, measuring the time frame for refereeing submitted articles in days and weeks rather than months and years, encouraging open access internet publishing, emphasizing the continuity of publishing online, academic publishing as a continuous dynamic process, and how to improve research after publication. Citations and functions thereof, such as the journal impact factor and h-index are the benchmark for evaluating the importance and impact of academic journals and published articles. Even in the very top journals, a high proportion of published articles is never cited, not even by the authors themselves. Top journal publications do not guarantee that published articles will make significant contributions, or that they will ever be highly cited. The COVID-19 world should encourage academics worldwide not only to rethink academic teaching, but also to re-evaluate key issues associated with academic journal publishing in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: STAVROS PONIS
Definition: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Others
Updated time: 13 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Ille Gebeshuber
Abstract: The first aircraft at the beginning of the 20th century had too weak engines to carry passengers. Air travel that time mainly took place in large airships. The first commercial flight took place on January 1st, 1914, across Tampa Bay, Florida, with one paying passenger. The first regular passenger air transport took place in Germany, between Berlin and Weimar, from 1919. The 1920s brought fast growth of passenger aviation. In 1932, the first serial production of aircraft for passenger air travel started. However, at that time, transatlantic passenger flights were still only performed by airships. Jet aircraft replaced propeller aircraft in the 1950s. Now there are eight million commercial flights every year (status: June 2011). The crew of an airplane consists of the captain, the first, second and third officer, the flight attendants, the flight engineer, the loadmaster, the pilot and the purser. About eight million people fly every day, yielding 3.1 billion passengers in air travel in 2013. Besides people and their luggage, cargo is transported, about 140,000 tons every day, which is equivalent to 50 million tons per year. There are nearly 60 million jobs in air travel; the global turnover of the airline industry is more than 700 billion USD, with about 2.6% net profit. International aviation reached a new record in 2010 with more than 30.5 million commercial flights. 35% of the total departures in 2010 took place in North America, 25% in Asia, 24% in Europe, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 3% in Oceania and 3% in Africa. Fastest growth is in Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East. Until 2030, an increase of the number of commercial flights to 52 million is estimated.
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Others
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Simon Grima
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose: The objectives of this study were to analyse certain aspects of the Board composition of Maltese listed companies (MLCs), namely Board size, independence, expertise, gender diversity and the chairperson/CEO links, and how these may be improved. Design/Approach/Methodology: The study was designed around a qualitative approach of data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen participants, consisting of fourteen company secretaries of MLCs, a representative of the Maltese regulator, a corporate advisor and a corporate lawyer. Findings: The nomination and appointment process of directors in MLCs relies mainly on networking, with a tendency to continuously appoint the same tried network of directors. This creates a barrier towards new talent being introduced into boardrooms. A general disagreement also persists as to what constitutes a truly independent Board member. Practical Implications: Practical experience often supplants academic qualifications when nominating and appointing directors. Moreover, female representation on the Boards of MLCs is still lacking. Notwithstanding the fact that the importance of having separate chairperson/CEO roles is acknowledged, there is likely to be strong resistance to any law rendering this mandatory. Originality/Value: Studies relating to the composition of the Board of Directors in smaller states such as the island state of Malta are infrequent. This paper provides information that is of particular value to listed companies in smaller states and their stakeholders, including regulators and sheds more light on the priniciple of proportionailty when dealing with requirements imposed by the authorities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Claude El-Bayeh
Definition: Has anyone of us missed an event because he was confused between days and dates? Do we really remember the date of any day if we do not have a calendar? Is the current Gregorian Calendar efficient enough for use, and does it really facilitate our life or make it more complicated? Have you ever thought about a much simpler way to calculate days and dates in a year? All these questions are answered in this article, in which the author proposes an original calendar that might facilitate our lives if we can apply it.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Anran Zhang
Definition: This entry aims to examine the influence of cause–brand fit on consumer attitudes, attributed company motives, and the moderating role of corporate reputation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Anran Zhang
Definition: Cause-related marketing (CRM) is the process of formulating and implementing marketing activities in which one firm commits to donate a specific amount to a non-profit organization (NPO) or social cause when customers purchase their products . The key to successful CRM is the consumer purchasing the cause-related product, and experimental methodology was adopted mostly during this process. Therefore, this entry systematically reviewed the CRM literature that measured consumers’ purchase intentions using the experimental methodology. A systematic literature research was undertaken examining five databases and 68 qualified articles were identified. The results showed that CRM in most qualified studies is manipulated as a tactical marketing program and the products are mainly low-cost and low involvement. Moreover, the CRM is more effective than the ordinary marketing or sales promotion strategy, such as discount and coupons. Furthermore, the specific characteristics of the CRM program (e.g., donation amount, cause type, message framing) have shown positive outcomes but mixed effects are persistent. Recommendations for implementing CRM programs and for future research were discussed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Raquel P. F. Guiné
Definition: New lifestyles, higher incomes and better consumer awareness are increasing the demand for a year-round supply of innovative food products. In past decades, important developments have been achieved in areas related to food and the food industry. This entry shows that factors influencing performance in new product development (NPD) are dynamic and continuously guiding project development. The data obtained by direct involvement of consumers can impact positively successful product development and enhance the company’s financial performance. The study of consumer behaviour and attitudes towards new foods encompasses multiple aspects, such as preference, choice, desire to eat certain foods, buying intentions and frequency of consumption. Additionally, both the consumers’ willingness to purchase and the willingness to pay a premium are important in NPD, launching and success.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Definition: Since e-commerce has revitalized recently in the form of live commerce and Instagram shopping, both purchase and sales have become promoted among consumers while reselling has been facilitated in second-hand item markets and among consumers. Particularly, the new trend of consuming products, rather than merely owning products, has become a mainstream factor in the market. Accordingly, consumers show extraordinary consumption, focusing on the act of purchasing limited edition products of high scarcity and placing more importance on one-off experience rather than ordinary new products or premium products. It was verified that the need for joining was the most critical factor facilitating consumers' reselling of limited edition products.
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Videos
Updated time: 18 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Stefano Ciliberti
The increasing request for food sustainability is affecting the pasta sector in Italy. This phenomenon introduces different sources of uncertainties that, in turn, put pressure on all the stages of the supply chain, with a consequent emerging need for a higher level of coordination. Based on the Transaction Costs Theory approach, the paper is aimed at verifying whether contract design—revolving around the negotiation of contractual attributes with different functions in terms of safeguard, adaptability, and coordination—plays a crucial role in aligning sources of uncertainty surrounding transactions with the allocation of property and decision rights. To this aim, a sample of durum wheat producers is interviewed for expressing their preferences about some contractual features, such as price, production and quality rules, sustainable environmental techniques, and advisory services. Using a discrete choice analysis through a multinomial logit model, results reveal that, thanks to the presence of attributes able to ensure coordination and adaptability, contracts are able to steer towards elements of sustainability related to food quality and safety, whereas further efforts are needed to share environmental goals with farmers.
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