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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
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Definition: Over the last few years, several authors have presented contrasting models to describe the response of boulders to extreme waves, but the absence of direct observation of movements has hindered the evaluation of these models. The recent development of online video-sharing platforms in coastal settings has provided the opportunity to monitor the evolution of rocky coastlines during storm events. In September 2018, a surveillance camera of the Marine Protected Area of Plemmirio recorded the movement of several boulders along the coast of Maddalena Peninsula (Siracusa, Southeastern Sicily) during the landfall of the Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone (Medicane) Zorbas. Unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys were performed to reconstruct immersive virtual scenarios to geometrically analyze the boulder displacements recorded in the video. Analyses highlighted that the displacements occurred when the boulders were submerged as a result of the impact of multiple small waves rather than due to a single large wave. Comparison between flow velocities obtained by videos and calculated through relationships showed a strong overestimation of the models, suggesting that values of flow density and lift coefficient used in literature are underestimated.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Apr 2021
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Definition: Agate ‒ a spectacular form of SiO2 and a famous gemstone ‒ is commonly characterized as banded chalcedony. In detail, chalcedony layers in agates can be intergrown or intercalated with macro-crystalline quartz, quartzine, opal-C, opal-CT, cristobalite and/or moganite. In addition, agates often contain considerable amounts of mineral inclusions and water as both interstitial molecular H2O and silanol groups.
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Biography
Updated time: 10 Nov 2020
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Abstract: My scholarly interests range widely, from mineral exploration to environmental issues such as geo-hazard, structural mapping, geothermal and geomorphic and coastal geology investigations. Subsequently, I have conducted several research projects for geological mapping, disaster management and environmental modeling using a variety of satellite remote sensing data such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), Landsat-8, Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Hyperion and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite data in arid and semi-arid terrains, Antarctic, Arctic and tropical environments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
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Definition: Antigorite is a Mg-rich 1:1 trioctahedral-structured layered silicate mineral of the serpentine group. Antigorite with layered structure can be used as a lubricant and friction reducing material to repair the friction pair of iron agent on line.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
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Definition: Bradoriids, among the earliest arthropods to appear in the fossil record, are extinct, ostracod-like bivalved forms that ranged from the early Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician. Bradoriids are notable for having appeared in the Cambrian fossil record before the earliest trilobites, and considering their rapid ascent to high genus-level diversity, provide key data for our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the Cambrian Explosion. This paper presents a broad review of bradoriid paleobiology.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Nov 2020
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Definition: The rare earth elements (REEs) have unique and diverse properties that make them function as an “industrial vitamin” and thus, many countries consider them as strategically important resources. China, responsible for more than 60% of the world’s REE production, is one of the REE‐rich countries in the world. Most REE (especially light rare earth elements (LREE)) deposits are closely related to carbonatite in China. Such a type of deposit may also contain appreciable amounts of industrially critical metals, such as Nb, Th and Sc. According to the genesis, the carbonatite‐related REE deposits can be divided into three types: primary magmatic type, hydrothermal type and carbonatite weathering‐crust type. This paper provides an overview of the carbonatite‐related endogenetic REE deposits, i.e., primary magmatic type and hydrothermal type. The carbonatite‐related endogenetic REE deposits are mainly distributed in continental margin depression or rift belts, e.g., Bayan Obo REE‐Nb‐Fe deposit, and orogenic belts on the margin of craton such as the Miaoya Nb‐REE deposit. The genesis of carbonatite‐related endogenetic REE deposits is still debated. It is generally believed that the carbonatite magma is originated from the low‐degree partial melting of the mantle. During the evolution process, the carbonatite rocks or dykes rich in REE were formed through the immiscibility of carbonate-silicate magma and fractional crystallization of carbonate minerals from carbonatite magma. The ore‐forming elements are mainly sourced from primitive mantle, with possible contribution of crustal materials that carry a large amount of REE. In the magmatic-hydrothermal system, REEs migrate in the form of complexes, and precipitate corresponding to changes of temperature, pressure, pH and composition of the fluids. A simple magmatic evolution process cannot ensure massive enrichment of REE to economic values. Fractional crystallization of carbonate minerals and immiscibility of melts and hydrothermal fluids in the hydrothermal evolution stage play an important role in upgrading the REE mineralization. Future work of experimental petrology will be fundamental to understand the partitioning behaviors of REE in magmatic-hydrothermal system through simulation of the metallogenic geological environment. Applying “comparative metallogeny” methods to investigate both REE fertile and barren carbonatites will enhance the understanding of factors controlling the fertility.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Oct 2020
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Definition: Four main unconformities (1-4) were recognized in the sedimentary record of the Cenozoic basins of the eastern External Betic Zone. More in detail, they are located at different stratigraphic levels as follows: (1) Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary even if this unconformity was also recorded at the early Paleocene (Murcia sector) and early Eocene (Alicante sector); (2) Eocene-Oligocene boundary and quite synchronous in the whole considered area; (3) early Burdigalian, and quite synchronous (recognized in the Murcia sector); (4) middle Tortonian (recognized in Murcia and Alicante sectors). These unconformities correspond to stratigraphic gaps of different temporal extensions with different meanings, which allowed recognizing minor sedimentary cycles in the Paleocene-Miocene time span. The Cenozoic marine sedimentation started over the oldest unconformity (i.e. the principal one), above the Mesozoic marine deposits. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentation shows numerous tectofacies (such as: turbidites, slumps, olistostromes, mega-olistostromes and pillow-beds) interpreted as related to an early, blind and deep-seated tectonic activity, acting in the more internal subdomains of the External Betic Zone as a result of the geodynamic processes related to the evolution of the westernmost branch of the Tethys. The second unconformity resulted from a Oligocene to Aquitanian sedimentary evolution in the Murcia Sector from marine realms to continental environments. This last time interval is characterized as the previous one by a gentle tectonic activity. On the other hand, the Miocene sedimentation was totally controlled by the development of superficial thrusts and/or bend zones of strike-slip faults both related to the regional geodynamic evolutionary framework linked to the Mediterranean opening. These bends of strike-slip faults created subsidence areas (pull-apart basin-type) and affected the sedimentation lying above the third unconformity. By contrast, the subsidence areas were bounded by structural highs affected by thrusts and folds. After the third unconformity, the Burdigalian-Serravallian sedimentation occurred mainly in shallow- to deep-water marine environments (Tap Fm). During the late Miocene, after the fourth unconformity, the activation of the bend zones of strike-slip faults caused a shallow marine environment sedimentation in the Murcia sector and a continental (lacustrine and fluvial) deposition in the Alicante sector represented, the latter resulting in alluvial fan deposits. Furthermore, the location of these fans changed over time according to the activation of faults responsible for the tectonic rising of Triassic salt deposits, which fed the fan themselves.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
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Definition: The Earth’s climate is changing; ice sheets and glaciers are melting and coastal hazards and sea level are rising in response. With a total population of over 300 million people situated on coasts, including 20 of the planet’s 33 megacities (over 10 million people), low-lying coastal areas represent one of the most vulnerable areas to the impacts of climate change. The need to identify and implement adaptation solutions to the impacts of climate change in coastal zones is urgent.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Nov 2021
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Definition: Ophiolites are fragments of ancient oceanic crust and upper mantle, which is created at ocean spreading ridges and then emplaced on land. Ophiolite-hosted diamond discovered in ophiolitic peridotite and chromitite is considered to be a new type that has been named an ophiolite-type by Yang et al., in 2011.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Definition: Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) are a set of slow and complex gravity-driven deformational processes, involving entire slopes (or large portions of them) over long time intervals. These phenomena have been identified on Mars since the early 2000s, and several detailed studies were conducted on them.
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