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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Farayde Fakhouri
Definition: This entry compiles information on biopolymers and natural bioactive compounds used in the production of bioactive films. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for incorporating bioactive compounds into film-forming solutions and their influence on the functional properties of biopolymer films.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Shunsuke FUKUBA
Definition: Various bone graft products are commercially available worldwide. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the appropriate bone graft products in different clinical situations. This study is intended to summarize bone graft products, especially alloplastic bone substitutes that are available in multiple countries. It also provides dental clinicians with detailed and accurate information concerning these products. Furthermore, it discusses the prospects of alloplastic bone substitutes based on an analysis of the current market status, as well as a comparison of trends among countries.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Irina Kurzina
Definition: The promising techniques of obtaining AO adsorbents are discussed, namely the technique of thermal activation in the mode of pneumatic transport with gibbsite by heated air (TCA Gb) and the technique of thermal activation of gibbsite in centrifugal flash reactors (CTA Gb).
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Yong Chan Choi
Definition: Despite their comparable performance to commercial solar systems, lead-based perovskite (Pb-perovskite) solar cells exhibit limitations including Pb toxicity and instability for industrial applications. To address these issues, two types of Pb-free materials have been proposed as alternatives to Pb-perovskite: perovskite-based and non-perovskite-based materials. In this entry, we briefly introduce the crystal, energy band structures and theoretical insights of Sb/Bi chalcohalides as solar abosrbers.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Amit Acharya
Definition: Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs) have gained increasing attention for their versatile fluorescent, optoelectronic, chemical, and biochemical properties.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 May 2021
Submitted by: Davide Vione
Definition: Aromatic nitroderivatives are compounds of considerable environmental concern, because some of them are phytotoxic (especially the nitrophenols, and particularly 2,4-dinitrophenol), others are mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic (e.g., the nitroderivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as 1-nitropyrene), and all of them absorb sunlight as components of the brown carbon. The latter has the potential to affect the climatic feedback of atmospheric aerosols. Most nitroderivatives are secondarily formed in the environment and, among their possible formation processes, photonitration upon irradiation of nitrate or nitrite is an important pathway that has periodically gained considerable attention.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Jia Liu
Definition: SAPCs provide a new pathway for the construction of high performance cocatalyst/photocatalyst composites. For the past few years, the preparation method, characterization technology, theoretical modeling, and mechanism investigation of SAPCs have been developed rapidly, promoting the rational design and fabrication of more efficient SAPCs. As discussed above, benefitting from their low-coordination status, unique electric structures, and metal-support interactions, SAPCs can bring about unique advantages in comparison with the nanocluster-based, nanoparticle-based, and bulk catalysts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Shu-jie Sun
Definition: Aurivillius-type layered compound have attracted increasing research interest, especially in recent 20 years, due to their promising electrical properties as new lead-free piezoelectric materials operating at high temperatures. For instance, the well-known Bi4Ti3O12, presents large spontaneous polarization, anisotropy and high ferroelectric Curie temperature and have wide applications in the electronic industry, capacitors, transducers, nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, piezoelectric sensors and optical devices. To increase functionality of Bi4Ti3O12 modification with BiFeO3 is very promising, which is also a methodology for constructing single-phase multiferroics in which ferrelectricity and magnetic ordering are coupled near room temperature. Combining these two materials exhibiting different physical performances one can create a kind of novel materials and thus achieve functionality. Herein, we summarized the recent progress in the field of synthesis of BFTO-n materials with various architectures and highlighted their extraordinary properties for promising applications in the electronic industry, quantum devices, capacitors, transducers, microwave absorbers, catalysts and photoelectric devices.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2020
Submitted by: Binbin He
Definition: The austenite stability represents the potential of metastable austenite grains in resisting the martensitic phase transformation under an applied either thermal or mechanical driving force.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Luigi Vaccaro
Definition: Aiming for more sustainable chemical production requires an urgent shift towards synthetic approaches designed for waste minimization. In this context the use of azeotropes can be an effective tool for “recycling” and minimizing the large volumes of solvents, especially in aqueous mixtures, used. This review discusses the implementation of different kinds of azeotropic mixtures in relation to the environmental and economic benefits linked to their recovery and re-use. Examples of the use of azeotropes playing a role in the process performance and in the purification steps maximizing yields while minimizing waste.
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