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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michael McAleer
Definition: Many academics are critical of the current publishing system, but it is difficult to create a better alternative. The perspective relates to the sciences and social sciences, and discusses the primary purpose of academic journals as providing a seal of approval for perceived quality, impact, significance, and importance. The key issues considered include the role of anonymous refereeing, continuous rather than discrete frequency of publications, avoidance of time wasting, and seeking adventure. Here we give recommendations about the organization of journal articles, the roles of associate editors and referees, measuring the time frame for refereeing submitted articles in days and weeks rather than months and years, encouraging open access internet publishing, emphasizing the continuity of publishing online, academic publishing as a continuous dynamic process, and how to improve research after publication. Citations and functions thereof, such as the journal impact factor and h-index are the benchmark for evaluating the importance and impact of academic journals and published articles. Even in the very top journals, a high proportion of published articles is never cited, not even by the authors themselves. Top journal publications do not guarantee that published articles will make significant contributions, or that they will ever be highly cited. The COVID-19 world should encourage academics worldwide not only to rethink academic teaching, but also to re-evaluate key issues associated with academic journal publishing in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Haitham Nobanee
Definition: The bibliometric analysis is a useful method when it comes to quantifying research outputs and when using the Scopus database. Using the bibliometric analysis method, this study aims to identify documents from the Scopus database that are most cited when doing a research study related to “objective risk” or “subjective risk”. Likewise, this study also adopted the use of the bibliometric analysis method in identifying the top 20 main sources of most cited documents, authors of most cited documents, and countries of most cited documents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Luís Machado
Definition: Collective construction of a concept can be understood as the negotiation of a meaning represented in the form of written definitions in a collaborative way. Although it can be understood as a reductionist view, these verbal externalizations will be necessary for a group of people to collectively construct a concept.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Neda Rostamzadeh
Definition: The increasing use of electronic health record (EHR)-based systems has led to the generation of clinical data at an unprecedented rate, which produces an untapped resource for healthcare experts to improve the quality of care. Despite the growing demand for adopting EHRs, the large amount of clinical data has made some analytical and cognitive processes more challenging. The emergence of a type of computational system called visual analytics has the potential to handle information overload challenges in EHRs by integrating analytics techniques with interactive visualizations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Svetla Baykoucheva
Definition: Eugene Garfield introduced information systems that made the discovery of scientific information much more efficient. The founded by him Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) developed innovative information products and provided current scientific information to researchers all over the world.Garfield introduced the citation as a qualitative measure of academic impact and propelled the concepts of “citation indexing” and “citation linking”, paving the way for today’s search engines. He created the Science Citation Index (SCI), which provided a new way of retrieving, organizing, disseminating, and using scientific information; triggered the development of new disciplines (scientometrics, infometrics, webometrics); and became the foundation for building important new information products. The Journal Impact Factor, initially established to select journals for the SCI, became the most widely accepted tool for measuring academic impact. Garfield actively promoted English as the international language of science and became a powerful force in the globalization of research. His ideas revolutionized science anddramatically influenced the culture of research. This Encyclopedia entry is based on the following article: Baykoucheva, S. Eugene Garfield’s Ideas and Legacy and Their Impact on the Culture of Research. Publications 2019, 7, 43.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 09 May 2021
Definition: Non-patent literature are scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, etc. that are cited in patents to show what has already been published about the invention to be patented and thus justify its novelty. These documents are considered technically relevant in the process of granting the patent and are cited along with other related patents. There are several names for this set of documents, such as Non-Patent Literature (NPL) and more general terms such as Non-Patent Reference (NPR) or Non-Patent Citation (NPC).
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 30 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Luís Machado
Definition: Within the knowledge organization systems (KOS) set, the term “ontology” is paradigmatic of the terminological ambiguity in different typologies. Contributing to this situation is the indiscriminate association of the term “ontology”, both as a specific type of KOS and as a process of categorization, due to the interdisciplinary use of the term with different meanings. We present a systematization of the perspectives of different authors of ontologies, as representational artifacts, seeking to contribute to terminological clarification. Focusing the analysis on the intention, semantics and modulation of ontologies, it was possible to notice two broad perspectives regarding ontologies as artifacts that coexist in the knowledge organization systems spectrum. We have ontologies viewed, on the one hand, as an evolution in terms of complexity of traditional conceptual systems, and on the other hand, as a system that organizes ontological rather than epistemological knowledge. The focus of ontological analysis is the item to model and not the intentions that motivate the construction of the system.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ho Manh Toan
Definition: Social Sciences & Humanities Peer Awards (SSHPA) is an ecosystem of a scientific database and a science communication website. The project was funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under the National Research Grant No. 502.01-2018.19. The SSHPA database was validated by Nature's Scientific Data.
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