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Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Zeynettin Akkus
Definition: Echocardiography (Echo), a widely available, noninvasive, and portable bedside imaging tool, is the most frequently used imaging modality in assessing cardiac anatomy and function in clinical practice. Artificial-intelligence-empowered echo (AI-Echo) can potentially reduce inter-interpreter variability and indeterminate assessment and improve the detection of unique conditions as well as the management of various cardiac disorders.
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Attila Frigy
Definition: Interatrial block associated with atrial arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, define the Bayés’ Syndrome (called after Bayés de Luna, a proeminent cardiologist, who published the seminal paper about the problem of P-wave anomalies and interatrial blocks). Finding the signs of interatrial block on ECG represents a call for active screening of atrial fibrillation and starting of prophylactic anticoagulation in selected patients.
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Violeta Carvalho
Definition: Blood flow modeling consists of using computational techniques to investigate the blood flow behavior in a rapid and accurate fashion. This has become an area of extensive research due to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, responsible for a critical number of deaths every year worldwide, most of which are associated with atherosclerosis, a disease that causes unusual hemodynamic conditions in arteries. In the present review, the application of computational simulations by using different physiological conditions of blood flow, several rheological models, and boundary conditions, were discussed.
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ali Zolfagharian
Definition: In our unique transdisciplinary approach, we studied the fundamentals of blood pressure and examined its measuring modalities while focusing on their clinical use and sensing principles to identify material functionalities. Then, we carefully reviewed various categories of functional materials utilized in sensor building blocks allowing for comparative analysis of the performance of a wide range of materials throughout the sensor operational-life cycle. Not only this provides essential data to enhance the materials’ properties and optimize their performance, but also, it highlights new perspectives and provides suggestions to develop the next generation pressure sensors for clinical use.
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Yajing Wang
Definition: A family of adiponectin paralogs designated as C1q complement/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-associated proteins (CTRPs) has been found to play a role in the development of CVD. CTRPs, which are comprised of 15 members, CTRP1 to CTRP15, are secreted from different organs/tissues and exhibit diverse functions, have attracted increasing attention because of their roles in maintaining inner homeostasis by regulating metabolism, inflammation, and immune surveillance.
Topic review
Updated time: 11 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Nour-Mounira Bakkar
Definition: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the earliest manifestations of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It constitutes the major cause of silent cardiovascular events in patients without overt cardiac disease. The high prevalence of CAN in patients newly diagnosed with T2D suggests that its pathophysiology is rooted in an earlier stage of metabolic derangement, possibly being prediabetes.
Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Leonidas Raftopoulos
Definition: Cardiac masses are space occupying lesions within the cardiac cavities or adjacent to the pericardium. They include frequently diagnosed clinical entities such as clots and vegetations, common benign tumors such as myxomas and papillary fibroelastomas and uncommon benign or malignant primary or metastatic tumors. Given their diversity, there are no guidelines or consensus statements regarding the best diagnostic or therapeutic approach. In the past, diagnosis used to be made by the histological specimens after surgery or during the post-mortem examination. Nevertheless, evolution and increased availability of cardiovascular imaging modalities has enabled better characterization of the masses and the surrounding tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography using contrast agents can evaluate the location, the morphology and the perfusion of the mass as well as its hemodynamic effect. Transesophageal echocardiography has increased spatial and temporal resolution; hence it is superior in depicting small highly mobile masses. Cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography are complementary providing tissue characterization. The scope of this review is to present the role of cardiovascular imaging in the differential diagnosis of cardiac masses and to propose a step-wise diagnostic algorithm, taking into account the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the cardiac masses, as well as the availability and the incremental value of each imaging modality.
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Giandomenico Bisaccia
Definition: Mitochondria are organelles responsible for energy production and various other functions in eukaryotes.In the heart, mitochondria are of pivotal importance due to cardiomyocytes' intrinsic high energy needs.
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: George Chaldakov
Definition: Abstract: Studies over the past 30 years have revealed that adipose tissue is the major endocrine and paracrine organ of the human body. Arguably, adiopobiology has taken its reasonable place in studying obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is viewed herein as a neurometabolic disorder. The pathogenesis and therapy of these diseases are multiplex at basic, clinical and translational levels. Our present goal is to describe new developments in cardiometabolic and neurometabolic adipobiology. Accordingly, we focus on adipose- and/or skeletal muscle-derived signaling proteins (adipsin, adiponectin, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neuroptrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, irisin, sirtuins, Klotho, neprilysin, follistatin-like protein-1, meteorin-like (metrnl), as well as growth differentiation factor 11) as examples of metabotrophic factors (MTFs) implicated in the pathogenesis and therapy of obesity and related CMDs. We argue that these pathologies are MTF-deficient diseases. In 1993 the “vascular hypothesis of AD” was published and in the present review we propose the “vasculometabolic hypothesis of AD.” We discuss how MTFs could bridge CMDs and neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. Greater insights on how to manage the MTF network would provide benefits to the quality of human life.
Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Elvira Parrotta
Definition: This entry provides an updateon previous and current research in the field ofCardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a class of disorders affecting the heart or blood vessels. Despite progress in clinical research and therapy, CVDs still represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The hallmarks of cardiac diseases include inflammation, fibrosis, scar tissue, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, abnormal ventricular remodeling, andcardiomyocyte death, which is an irreversible process that induces heart failure with progressive and dramatic consequences. Both genetic and environmental factors pathologically contribute to the development of CVDs, but the precise causes that trigger cardiac diseases and their progression are still largely unknown. In this scenario, the possibility to generate patient-specific cardiac cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a powerful platform for the investigation ofthese life-threatening disorders.
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