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Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Horacio Osorio
Definition: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence supports that inflammation plays a key role in triggering and maintaining pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent studies have shown that garlic extract has protective effects in PAH, but the precise role of allicin, a compound derived from garlic, is unknown. Thus, we used allicin to evaluate its effects on inflammation and fibrosis in PAH.
Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Holly Sucharski
Definition: Ankyrin-B (encoded by ANK2), originally identified as a key cytoskeletal-associated protein in the brain, is highly expressed in the heart and plays critical roles in cardiac physiology and cell biology. In the heart, ankyrin-B directs the targeting and localization of key ion channels and transporters, structural proteins, and signaling molecules. The role of ankyrin-B in normal cardiac function is illustrated in animal models lacking ankyrin-B expression, which display significant electrical and structural phenotypes,1 and life-threatening arrhythmias. Further, ankyrin-B dysfunction has been associated with cardiac phenotypes in humans (now referred to as “ankyrin-B syndrome”) including sinus node dysfunction, heart rate variability, atrial fibrillation, conduction block, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, structural remodeling, and sudden cardiac death.
Topic review
Updated time: 20 May 2021
Submitted by: Ognjenka Rahic
Definition: Although homeostasis is a commonly accepted concept, there is incontrovertible evidence that biological processes and functions are variable, and that variability occurs in cycles. So allostatic model has emerged as the first challenge to homeostasis. Circadian variation is the predominant variation in the body. As there is strong scientific and clinical evidence that blood pressure fluctuations undergo circadian rhythm, there is equally strong evidence that targeted time therapy for hypertension provides a better outcome of the disease. The research has gone even further by ensuring better patients' adherence throughout the development and approval process for the use of pulsatile drug release systems which can be considered as an option for an even more convenient dosage regimen of the medicines needed.
Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Zeynettin Akkus
Definition: Echocardiography (Echo), a widely available, noninvasive, and portable bedside imaging tool, is the most frequently used imaging modality in assessing cardiac anatomy and function in clinical practice. Artificial-intelligence-empowered echo (AI-Echo) can potentially reduce inter-interpreter variability and indeterminate assessment and improve the detection of unique conditions as well as the management of various cardiac disorders.
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: François DUPUIS
Definition: Ang II is known as the main effector of the RAS. Ang II binds with a similar affinity to two receptors: the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1) and type 2 receptor (AT2), both belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and sharing 50% homology and 34% identity in their amino acid sequence. Ang II activation of AT1 is acknowledged as triggering most of the known effects of RAS stimulation, such as vasoconstriction, water and sodium retention and aldosterone release by the adrenal glands. This leads to increases in blood pressure, cardiovascular remodeling and fibrosis. Due to its wide physiological effects, AT1 plays a critical role in many pathological conditions and cardiovascular diseases, like cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and heart failure.
Topic review
Updated time: 16 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Michael Derndorfer
Definition: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Heart Failure (HF) are closely linked to each other, as each can be either the cause of or the result of the other. Successfully treating one of the two entities means laying the basis for treating the other one as well. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, It is predisposed by several risk factors such as HF, ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure, valvular heart disease, sleep apnea, and diabetes, and at the same time increases the risk of developing heart failure of any kind (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction, HFmrEF; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFrEF). AF and heart failure co-exist in up to 30% of patients and are closely linked to each other, as each can be either the cause of or the result of the other (“Atrial Fibrillation Begets Heart Failure and Vice Versa”). When both conditions occur in the same patient, the prognosis is worse than with either condition alone. Pulmonary Vein Isolation (PVI) is a well established treatment option in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Studies investigating PVI in patients with AF and HF will be discussed in this paper.
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Attila Frigy
Definition: Interatrial block associated with atrial arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, define the Bayés’ Syndrome (called after Bayés de Luna, a proeminent cardiologist, who published the seminal paper about the problem of P-wave anomalies and interatrial blocks). Finding the signs of interatrial block on ECG represents a call for active screening of atrial fibrillation and starting of prophylactic anticoagulation in selected patients.
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Violeta Carvalho
Definition: Blood flow modeling consists of using computational techniques to investigate the blood flow behavior in a rapid and accurate fashion. This has become an area of extensive research due to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, responsible for a critical number of deaths every year worldwide, most of which are associated with atherosclerosis, a disease that causes unusual hemodynamic conditions in arteries. In the present review, the application of computational simulations by using different physiological conditions of blood flow, several rheological models, and boundary conditions, were discussed.
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ali Zolfagharian
Definition: In our unique transdisciplinary approach, we studied the fundamentals of blood pressure and examined its measuring modalities while focusing on their clinical use and sensing principles to identify material functionalities. Then, we carefully reviewed various categories of functional materials utilized in sensor building blocks allowing for comparative analysis of the performance of a wide range of materials throughout the sensor operational-life cycle. Not only this provides essential data to enhance the materials’ properties and optimize their performance, but also, it highlights new perspectives and provides suggestions to develop the next generation pressure sensors for clinical use.
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Yajing Wang
Definition: A family of adiponectin paralogs designated as C1q complement/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-associated proteins (CTRPs) has been found to play a role in the development of CVD. CTRPs, which are comprised of 15 members, CTRP1 to CTRP15, are secreted from different organs/tissues and exhibit diverse functions, have attracted increasing attention because of their roles in maintaining inner homeostasis by regulating metabolism, inflammation, and immune surveillance.
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