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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marco Nuti
Definition: Knowledge of the agricultural soil microbiota, of the microbial consortia that comprise it, and the promotion of agricultural practices that maintain and encourage them, is a promising way to improve soil quality for sustainable agriculture and to provide food security. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of beneficial soil microorganisms on crop yields and quality, the use of microbial consortia in agriculture remains low. Microbial consortia have more properties than an individual microbial inoculum, due to the synergy of the microorganisms that populate them.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Carbon-based Quantum dots (C-QDs) are carbon-based materials that experience the quantum confinement effect, which results in superior optoelectronic properties. In recent years, C-QDs have attracted attention significantly and have shown great application potential as a high-performance supercapacitor device. C-QDs (either as a bare electrode or composite) give a new way to boost supercapacitor performances in higher specific capacitance, high energy density, and good durability. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date progress in C-QD applications either in a bare condition or as a composite with other materials for supercapacitors. The current state of the three distinct C-QD families used for supercapacitors including carbon quantum dots, carbon dots, and graphene quantum dots is highlighted.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Seng Boon Lim
Definition: The citizen-centric smart city is conceptualised from the citizenship perspective which stressed on the citizen's responsibilities and participatory governance practices in a smart city (Malek, Lim and Yigitcanlar, 2021). This conception argues that instead of the traditional view on fulfilling the citizen's needs, the citizens should co-produce, participate and contribute to building the smart city together with the government and corporates.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michael Vallance
Definition: Overcoming cybersickness remains elusive for VR developers and practitioners. Symptoms such as discomfort, headache, eye strain, and dizziness during and after VR experiences can be associated with cybersickness. Cybersickness is often compared with motion sickness and simulator sickness. However, cybersickness is categorized as a subset of motion sickness as cybersickness is considered a form of visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) (Weech et al., 2019) and shown to be three times more serious than simulator sickness (Stanney et al., 1997).
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Submitted by: LI Shaobo
Definition: The detection of product defects is essential in quality control in manufacturing. This study surveys stateoftheart deep-learning methods in defect detection. First, we classify the defects of products, such as electronic components, pipes, welded parts, and textile materials, into categories. Second, recent mainstream techniques and deep-learning methods for defects are reviewed with their characteristics, strengths, and shortcomings described. Third, we summarize and analyze the application of ultrasonic testing, filtering, deep learning, machine vision, and other technologies used for defect detection, by focusing on three aspects, namely method and experimental results. To further understand the difficulties in the field of defect detection, we investigate the functions and characteristics of existing equipment used for defect detection. The core ideas and codes of studies related to high precision, high positioning, rapid detection, small object, complex background, occluded object detection and object association, are summarized. Lastly, we outline the current achievements and limitations of the existing methods, along with the current research challenges, to assist the research community on defect detection in setting a further agenda for future studies.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Naoto Ohtake
Definition: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been extensively applied in industries owing to their excellent characteristics such as high hardness. In particular, there is a growing demand for their use as protective films for mechanical parts owing to their excellent wear resistance and low friction coefficient. DLC films have been deposited by various methods and many deviate from the DLC regions present in the ternary diagrams proposed for sp3covalent carbon, sp2covalent carbon, and hydrogen. Consequently, redefining the DLC region on ternary diagrams using DLC coatings for mechanical and electrical components is urgently required. Therefore, we investigate the sp3ratio, hydrogen content, and other properties of 74 types of amorphous carbon films and present the classification of amorphous carbon films, including DLC. We measured the sp3ratios and hydrogen content using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and Rutherford backscattering-elastic recoil detection analysis under unified conditions. Amorphous carbon films were widely found with nonuniform distribution. The number of carbon atoms in the sp3covalent carbon without bonding with hydrogen and the logarithm of the hydrogen content were inversely proportional. Further, we elucidated the DLC regions on the ternary diagram, classified the amorphous carbon films, and summarized the characteristics and applications of each type of DLC.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Sandro Serpa
Definition: The COVID-19 pandemic caused profound shifts in the functioning of organisations, with the increased mobilisation of the implementation of digitalisation processes in the activities of the members of these coordinated collective units. In this perspective, based on our academic experience and recent literature, this paper offers some dimensions that seem to us relevant to ponder with special urgency, and that will shape both organisations in the near future and an organisational culture that is, in many cases, renewed.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Vasja Roblek
Definition: The Society 5.0 emerged as an Japanese government program in which the government wish to establish a better, super-smart and more prosperous human-centered society, with the support of the technological innovations. The goal of the program is also to recover the Japanese economy. The similar program is known in Europe as Industry 4.0. or Fourth Industrial revolution and in USA as Industrial Internet.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Feb 2021
Submitted by: babak dariush
Definition: The human beings intrinsically, intensively, and strongly guard their life and soul. This instinctive protection is also supported by the social, cultural, religious, and legal principles and regulations, too. If we consider the means of realizing this phenomenon to be the instinctive intelligence of man in preserving its life and health, we must admit that humans do not have such intelligence about their environment and this is a rare paradox. So, why cannot humans understand that the destruction of the environment will ultimately cause the destruction of the human race, while these same humans are incredibly industrious, active, and confident in guarding their own lives? This apparent and dangerous contradiction can be attributed to the lack of intelligence which historical experiences show it has been clearly prominent among individuals and human groups in the traditional world, and more likely in prehistoric man and has been badly damaged and destroyed in modern times and with the acceptance of the duet between man and nature. This is the intelligence that has to be revitalized again in an acceptable manner for the modern human beings. The mental relationship between people and the environment comes from a chain of experiences and knowledge, and the meaning of the environment derives from its functions. This intelligence, which we call "Environmental Intelligence", is the power of calculation, analysis, and presupposition that can help humans establish an organic and immediate relationship between their own partial actions and the large and subtle environmental effects that would immediately and undoubtedly influence the whole society and the entire environment and eventually every individual members of the society. This is the intelligence that has to have an individual and collective aspect and be learnt and transferred in a holistic connection of the individual and society and it is the intelligence that can establish a systematic and nonlinear relationship between the individual, society, environment and the bioenvironmental data. The acquisition and deepening of such intelligence can bridge the gaps that are existent in the human community and are dangerously growing on a daily basis even with the extensive and unprecedented instructions and notifications.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Ryan Randy Suryono
Definition: Financial Technology (Fintech) is a new financial industry that applies technology to improve financial activities. Moreover, according to Leong and Sung (2018), Fintech can also be considered as “any innovative ideas that improve financial service processes by proposing technology solutions according to different business situations" .
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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