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Peptides for Health Benefits
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Van-An Duong
Definition: Three-dimensional liquid chromatography (3D-LC) is the consecutive combination of 3 independent LC techniques to decrease the complexity of proteome digest samples. 3D-LC systems can be performed in an online or offline manner. Ideally, each dimension in a 3D-LC system is completely orthogonal to the others.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Young Park
Definition: Cows’ milk generally contains two major types of beta-casein as A1 and A2 types, although there are 13 genetic variants of β-casein: A1, A2, A3, A4, B, C, D, E, F, H1, H2, I and G. Studies have shown that A1 β-casein may be harmful, and A2 β-casein is a safer choice for human health especially in infant nutrition and health. The A2 cow milk is reportedly easier to digest and better absorb than A1 or other types of milk. The structure of A2 cow’s milk protein is more comparable to human breast milk, as well as milk from goats, sheep and buffalo. Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) is considered a common milk digestive and metabolic disorder or allergic disease with various levels of prevalence from 2.5% in children during the first 3 years of life to 12–30% in infants less than 3 months old, and it can go up to even as high as 20% in some countries. CMPA is an IgE-mediated allergy where the body starts to produce IgE antibodies against certain protein (allergens) such as A1 milk and αs1-casein in bovine milk. Studies have shown that ingestion of β-casein A1 milk can cause ischemic heart disease, type-1 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, etc. The knowledge of bovine A2 milk and caprine αs2-casein has been utilized to rescue CMPA patients and other potential disease problems.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Antimo Di Maro
Definition: Ageritin is a specific ribonuclease, extracted from the edible mushroomCyclocybe aegerita(synonymAgrocybe aegerita), which cleaves a single phosphodiester bond located within the universally conserved alpha-sarcin loop (SRL) of 23–28S rRNAs.This toxin is the prototype of ribotoxin-like protein family present in edible mushroom and possesses antifungal/antiviral activities and selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells with potential use in biotechnological applications (as bio-insecticides or antitumor agents).
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Zsolt Preisz
Definition: Methotrexate (4-{N-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl) methyl]-N-methylamino} benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, MTX) is an antimetabolite drug. It is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis and some sorts of leukemia. MTX is a relatively well-known molecule and is a first-line antirheumatic medication because of its efficacy and safety. It decreases the concentration of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in the cells by the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme, therefore it reduces the purine nucleotide and DNA synthesis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Viorica Patrulea
Definition: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs), are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They typically consist of 10–50 amino acid residues (very rarely up to 100 amino acids) and generally possess cationic (net charge ranging from −4 to +20) and amphipathic structures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jan 2021
Submitted by: ROHIT KUMAR
Definition: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the arsenals of the innate host defense system, exhibiting evolutionarily conserved characteristics that are present in practically all forms of life. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria compounded with a slow discovery rate for new antibiotics that have necessitated scientific efforts to search for alternatives to antibiotics. Research on the identification of AMPs has generated very encouraging evidence that they curb infectious pathologies and are also useful as novel biologics to function as immunotherapeutic agents. Being innate, they exhibit the least cytotoxicity to the host and exerts a wide spectrum of biological activity including low resistance among microbes and increased wound healing actions. Notably, in veterinary science, the constant practice of massive doses of antibiotics with inappropriate withdrawal programs led to a high risk of livestock-associated antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the world faces tremendous pressure for designing and devising strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics in animals and keep it safe for posterity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Cong Xie
Definition: Bile acids are cholesterol-derived metabolites with a well-established role in the digestion and absorption of dietary fat. More recently, the discovery of bile acids as natural ligands for the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), and the recognition of the effects of FXR and TGR5 signaling have led to a paradigm shift in knowledge regarding bile acid physiology and metabolic health. Bile acids are now recognized as signaling molecules that orchestrate blood glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. Changes in FXR and/or TGR5 signaling modulates the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, and the composition of the gut microbiome.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Silvia Gazzin
Definition: Bilirubin is a yellow endogenous derivate of the heme catabolism. Since the 1980s, it has been recognized as one of the most potent antioxidants in nature, able to counteract 10,000× higher intracellular concentrations of H2O2. In the recent years, not only bilirubin, but also its precursor biliverdin, and the enzymes involved in their productions (namely heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase; altogether the "yellow players"-YPs) have been recognized playing a protective role in diseases characterized by a chronic prooxidant status.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Manlio Tolomeo
Definition: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) constitute a family of transcription factors composed of six members that are critical for normal cellular differentiation in a variety of tissues. They promote the expression of genes through interaction with their promoters. Moreover, they have a key role in regulating cellular proliferation through interaction with cell cycle proteins. C/EBPs are considered to be tumor suppressor factors due to their ability to arrest cell growth (contributing to the terminal differentiation of several cell types) and for their role in cellular response to DNA damage, nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and genotoxic agents. However, C/EBPs can elicit completely opposite effects on cell proliferation and cancer development and they have been described as both tumor promoters and tumor suppressors.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 May 2021
Submitted by: Surinder M Soond
Definition: Taken with the growing importance of cathepsin-mediated substrate proteolysis in tumor biology and progression, the focus and emphasis placed on therapeutic design and development is coming into fruition. Underpinning this approach is the invariable progression from the direction of fully characterizing cathepsin protease members and their substrate targets, towards targeting such an interaction with tangible therapeutics. The two groups of such substrates that have gained much attention over the years are the pro- and anti- apoptotic protein intermediates from the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling arms of the apoptosis pathway.
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