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Neuroinflammation
Academic Editor: Vittorio Gentile

Neuroinflammation seems to play a pivotal role in various chronic neurodegenerative diseases, characterized also by the pathogenetic accumulation of specific protein aggregates. Several of these proteins have been shown to be substrates of transglutaminases, calcium-dependent enzymes that catalyze protein crosslinking reactions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that transglutaminase  2 (TG2), a member of the transglutaminase enzymes family,  may also be involved in molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation. In the central nervous system, microglia and astrocytes are the cell types mainly involved  in the inflammatory process. The topic suggested is focused on the increases of TG2 protein expression and enzyme activity that occur in neuronal and in non neuronal cells, such as  glial, microglial and monocyte cells in response to inflammatory stimuli.

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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Moon-Soo Lee
Definition: Depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence is a highly prevalent mood disorder that tends to recur throughout life. Untreated mood disorders can adversely impact a patient’s quality of life and cause socioeconomic loss. Thus, an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial. However, until now, diagnoses and treatments were conducted according to clinical symptoms. Objective and biological validation is lacking. This may result in a poor outcome for patients with depressive disorder. Research has been conducted to identify the biomarkers that are related to depressive disorder. Cumulative evidence has revealed that certain immunologic biomarkers including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytokines, gastrointestinal biomarkers, hormones, oxidative stress, and certain hypothalamus-pituitary axis biomarkers are associated with depressive disorder. This article reviews the biomarkers related to the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric depressive disorders. To date, clinical biomarker tests are not yet available for diagnosis or for the prediction of treatment prognosis. However, cytokines such as Interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and BDNF have shown significant results in previous studies of pediatric depressive disorder. These biomarkers have the potential to be used for diagnosis, prognostic assessment, and group screening for those at high risk.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Li Chuin Chong
Definition: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), one of the leading inherited causes of child mortality, is a rare neuromuscular disease arising from loss-of-function mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which encodes the SMN protein. When lacking the SMN protein in neurons, patients suffer from muscle weakness and atrophy, and in the severe cases, respiratory failure and death. Several therapeutic approaches show promise with human testing and three medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to date. Despite the shown promise of these approved therapies, there are some crucial limitations, one of the most important being the cost. The FDA-approved drugs are high-priced and are shortlisted among the most expensive treatments in the world. The price is still far beyond affordable and may serve as a burden for patients. The blooming of the biomedical data and advancement of computational approaches have opened new possibilities for SMA therapeutic development.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Janusz Blasiak
Definition: Migraines are a common disease with limited treatment options and some dietary factors are recognized to trigger headaches. Although migraine pathogenesis is not completely known, aberrant DNA methylation has been reported to be associated with its occurrence. Folate, an essential micronutrient involved in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation, was shown to have beneficial effects on migraines.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
Definition: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The maternal status of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulates microglial activity and neuroinflammatory pathways during a child’s brain development. In children with ASD, the metabolism of PUFA is thought to be deficient or abnormal, leading to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, increased oxidative stress and an imbalance in the formation and action of neurotransmitters. In addition, nutritional deficits in omega-3 PUFA may affect gut microbiota and contribute to ASD by the gut–brain axis.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Patrizia HRELIA
Definition: Amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced abnormal neuroinflammation is recognized as a major pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which results in memory impairment. Research exploring low-grade systemic inflammation and its impact on the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease has increased. A particular research focus has been whether systemic inflammation arises only as a secondary effect of disease, or it is also a cause of pathology. The inflammasomes, and more specifically the NLRP3 inflammasome, are crucial components of the innate immune system and are usually activated in response to infection or tissue damage.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Anna Maria Bassi
Definition: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are a population of neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) extending with their soma to the inner retina and with their axons to the optic nerve. Glaucoma represents a group of neurodegenerative diseases where the slow progressive death of RGCs results in a permanent loss of vision. To date, although Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) is considered the main therapeutic target, the precise mechanisms by which RGCs die in glaucoma have not yet been clarified.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Definition: Thiophene derivatives provide useful intermediaries in various areas of science and industry, with a wide range of applications, and therapeutic properties. Thiophene derivatives attract both great academic interest, and interest from the agrochemical, pharmaceutical, and dye industries, as well. As to their biological and pharmacological applications, thiophene derivatives possess remarkable properties as antipsychotic, antianxiety, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agents. The present work provides an update on the role of thiophene-based derivatives in inflammation processes.
Entry Collection : Neuroinflammation
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