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Metabolic Disorders and Sport
Academic Editor: Antonio Cicchella

Sport is a human activity which exist on large scale since the end of 19en century. The spread of sport has improved quality of life and health, but at the same time has developed a new, previously unknown, cohort of diseases. These disease can be linked to heavy training (e.g. renal failure for kidney overload due to lactate removal), to vascular problems due to catabolites accumulation, to rapid weight gain after sport termination in heavy training athletes and other dysmetabolic disorders (e.g. obesity induced by sport diet), to intoxication of nervous system due to catabolites accumulation (for example in the optic nerve), to sport induced anorexia nervosa, and intoxication from rhabdomyolysis.

This collection of Encycopedia is focused on making the point of the existing knowledge in the field of metabolic disease directly linked to physical activity and heavy exertion.

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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Hugues Portier
Definition: As vascularization is an integral part of bone repair process, the analysis of the preventive and/or curative effects of physical exercise is currently very undeveloped. Angiogenesis–osteogenesis coupling may constitute a new way for understanding the role of physical activity, especially in fracturing or in the integration of bone biomaterials.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Jun Sung Moon
Definition: CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein found in platelets, mononuclear phagocytes, adipocytes, hepatocytes, myocytes, taste bud cells, and a variety of other cell types.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Definition: Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from energy deficit and reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation. The manifestation of mitochondrial disease is usually multi-organ. Epilepsy is one of the most common manifestations of diseases resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in children.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Clara I Rodriguez
Definition: Bone damage leading to bone loss can arise from a wide range of causes, including those intrinsic to individuals such as infections or diseases with metabolic (diabetes), genetic (osteogenesis imperfecta), and/or age-related (osteoporosis) etiology, or extrinsic ones coming from external insults such as trauma or surgery. Although bone tissue has an intrinsic capacity of self-repair, large bone defects often require anabolic treatments targeting bone formation process and/or bone grafts, aiming to restore bone loss. The current bone surrogates used for clinical purposes are autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic bone grafts, which although effective imply a number of limitations: the need to remove bone from another location in the case of autologous transplants and the possibility of an immune rejection when using allogeneic or xenogeneic grafts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Elizabeth Barber
Definition: Flavonoids are found ubiquitously in plants and represent ~60% of all dietary (poly)phenolic compounds. Flavonols, a sub-class of flavonoids, are present in onions, kale, apples, berries, leeks and broccoli. Some flavonols excreted in urine can be used as biomarkers of flavonol intake and are significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. Many flavonoids extracted from plants inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro, and improve postprandial glycaemia in diabetic animal models and limited human studies. Very few studies have reported on the inhibition of isomaltase, however. The disaccharide isomaltose is rarely present in nature but is commonly added as low-caloric food sweeteners in industrial-scale production, or produced from amylopectin hydrolysis to α-limit dextrins. Studies assessing the isomaltase inhibitory potential by flavonoids and acarbose are therefore of interest.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Agnieszka Podfigurna
Definition: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea in women of childbearing age. It is a reversible disorder caused by stress related to weight loss, excessive exercise and/or traumatic mental experiences. The basis of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is hormonal, based on impaired pulsatile GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus, then decreased secretion of gonadotropins, and, consequently, impaired hormonal function of the ovaries. This disorder leads to hypoestrogenism, manifested by a disturbance of the menstrual cycle in the form of amenorrhea, leading to anovulation. Prolonged state of hypoestrogenism can be very detrimental to general health, leading to many harmful short- and long-term consequences.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Andrea Olmos-Ortiz
Definition: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a transient condition characterized by carbohydrate intolerance, hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, insufficient insulin secretion or activity, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, frequently with the first onset between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mohd Ezuan Bin Khayat
Definition: The insulin signaling pathway begins with the binding of the peptide hormone insulin to its corresponding receptor, the insulin receptor. The insulin receptor is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that conformationally consists of two alpha and two beta subunit tetramers. The insulin receptor exhibiting kinase activity is responsible for its autophosphorylation at the tyrosine residue site upon insulin binding.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Elena Di Pierro
Definition: Porphyrias are a group of diseases that are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and originate mostly from inherited dysfunctions of specific enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Jingzhi Fan
Definition: Identifying the changes in endogenous metabolites in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors has excellent potential to obtain an understanding of cells, biofluids, tissues, or organisms’ functions and interactions with the environment. The advantages provided by the metabolomics strategy have promoted studies in bone research fields, including an understanding of bone cell behaviors, diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, and the development of treatment methods such as implanted biomaterials.
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