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Structures for Engineering and Architecture

Nowadays, the significant increase of devastating seismic events has made the technical-scientific and political communities aware of the seismic vulnerability of buildings located in highly exposed urban areas. In the historical centres, the conspicuous construction heterogeneity, conjunctly with the intrinsic typological-structural deficiencies of buildings, negatively influences their global behaviour against earthquakes. As it is known, existing buildings of the urban tissue are potentially at risk due to the precarious behaviour caused by age and lack of maintenance, which is very complicated to be predicted. In general, the historical centre buildings are often arranged as building compound made of a non-homogeneous set of interacting structural units (SUs) built in different historical periods and characterized by architectural, material, and functional complexity, such as to make the clustered structure ineffective against seismic actions. The pre-code and a low standard design have brought out an evident lack of structural and non-structural details, that have slavishly altered the entire asset of these buildings.
In this case, the assessment of seismic vulnerability is a useful strategy for planning and mitigating any systemic crises to safeguard buildings of immeasurable architectural and cultural value. To cope with this structural inadequacy, it is essential to intensify the cohesion between analytical innovation and consolidation techniques for developing a more sophisticated structural process to improve, globally, the conservation of buildings exposed at risk.

Based on the previous premises, this Special Issue aims to encourage the dissemination of ideas and knowledge concerning the assessment and reduction of the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings, favouring interdisciplinarity between architectural and engineering issues. To this intent, original contributions containing fundamental and applied research, case studies or discussions on the state-of-the-art of the following topics are welcome:

(1) Seismic vulnerability:

Evolution; conceptual understanding, historical analysis and future multidisciplinary perspectives; failure detection and diagnosis systems; inventories and intelligent digitized structures;

(2) Vulnerability assessment methods and tools:

Empirical approaches; mechanical analytical methods; advanced numerical simulation; large-scale evaluation methods; analysis of systemic fragility; GIS approach;

(3) Seismic consolidation and retrofit techniques, architectural-functional conservation:

Traditional and innovative strategies; cost-benefit analysis; Experimental tests; development and validation; analytical and numerical simulation; application cases; post-earthquake surveys; conservation, protection, and prevention; architectural and functional redevelopment.

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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Shingo Asamoto
Definition: Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures is critical to structural performance and also causes spalling of concrete cover, which poses a risk to occupants and any other person passing under the structure. It is well established that corrosion is initiated after the depassivation of the steel surface caused by the carbonation of the cover concrete and chloride ingress. For real structures in the field, it has been reported that corrosion was unlikely to be observed when the concrete was directly kept from moisture exposure, even when carbonation reached the reinforcing steel; however, corrosion can occur because of rainfall moisture and other sources. In this study, he cover depth effect on corrosion-induced deterioration on-site in different Asian countries was surveyed focusing on the water penetration rather than the classical corrosion factors, such as carbonation and chloride ingress, and then to experimentally and numerically investigate the threshold of water penetration and drying in cover concrete to support the survey findings.
Topic review
Updated time: 20 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Harekrushna Sutar
Definition: Graphene has accomplished huge notoriety and interest from the universe of science considering its exceptional mechanical, physical and thermal properties. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon having one atom thick size and planar sheets thickly stuffed in a lattice structure resembling a honeycomb structure. Numerous methods to prepare graphene have been created throughout a limited span of time. Due to its fascinating properties, it has found some extensive applications to a wide variety of fields. So, we believe there is a necessity to produce a document of the outstanding methods and some of the novel applications of graphene.
Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Koh-ichi Sugimoto
Definition: Advanced martensitic steels (AMSs) developed for sheet and wire rod products have a tensile strength higher than 1.5 GPa, good cold-formability, superior toughness and fatigue strength, and delayed fracture strength due to a mixture of martensite and retained austenite, compared with the conventional martensitic steels.
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Definition: The contemporary displacement measurement systems used in geotechnical laboratories during the determination of soil precise mechanical parameters, (e.g., the shear modules G: initial and in the range of small and very small strains) are not universal and their use depends on the type of soil (cohesive, non-cohesive), its condition (loose or dense, stiff or very soft), and its characteristic properties (e.g., organic soil, swelling soil).