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Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Definition: In the last two decades, the therapeutic landscape of several tumors have changed profoundly with the introduction of drugs against proteins encoded by oncogenes. Oncogenes play an essential role in human cancer and when their encoded proteins are inhibited by specific drugs, the tumoral process can be reverted or stopped. An example of this is the case of the chronic myeloid leukemia, in which all the pathological features can be attributed by a single oncogene. Most patients with this disease now have a normal life expectancy thanks to a rationality designed inhibitor. However, the drug only blocks the protein, the oncogene continues unaffected and treatment discontinuation is only an option for a small subset of patients. With the advent of genome-editing nucleases and, especially, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, the possibilities to destroy oncogenes now is feasible. A novel therapeutic tool has been developed with unimaginable limits in cancer treatment. Recent studies support that CRISPR/Cas9 system could be a definitive therapeutic option in chronic myeloid leukemia. This work reviews the biology of chronic myeloid leukemia, the emergence of the CRISPR system, and its ability as a specific tool for this disease.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mirjana Kessler
Definition: Gynaecological malignancies represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with vastly different aetiology, risk factors, molecular drivers, and disease outcomes. From HPV-driven cervical cancer where early screening and molecular diagnostics efficiently reduced the number of advanced-stage diagnosis, prevalent and relatively well-treated endometrial cancers, to highly aggressive and mostly lethal high-grade serous ovarian cancer, malignancies of the female genital tract have unique presentations and distinct cell biology features. Recent discoveries of stem cell regulatory mechanisms, development of organoid cultures, and NGS analysis have provided valuable insights into the basic biology of these cancers that could help advance new-targeted therapeutic approaches.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Kevin Verhoeff
Definition: Islets of Langerhan are a crucial group of cells that enable the metabolization, physiologic control, and utilization of glucose, the primary energy source for cells. In situ physiologic intraportal hormone delivery from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans maintains basal normoglycemia with insulin and counterbalances hypoglycemia with glucagon. Insulin output can increase up ten-fold after a meal, and return rapidly to basal levels with no hysteresis. Type 1 diabetes represents an increasing and growingly financially unsustainable disease occurring due to the destruction of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Current injectable insulin technologies fail to recreate physiologic glycemic control that is managed by islet cells resulting in a tight 1–2 mmol/L glycemic variance. In our opinion, exogenous subcutaneous insulin delivery, even when provided by the most ideal closed loop systems, cannot recreate this degree of dynamic control. Current therapies fail to adequately achieve euglycemia, leading to significant diabetes complications and a risk of mortality. Thus, developing a cell-based cure for type 1 diabetes through islet cell generation and transplantation remains an ideal to strive for. Achieving this goal, especially with stem cell therapies, as demonstrated by the Edmonton protocol (Shapiro 2000), demands complete understanding of embryological differentiation and physiology of the islets of Langerhans.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
MDS
Submitted by: Nicolas Bonadies
Definition: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders caused by sequential accumulation of somatic driver mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). MDS is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with cytopenia, dysplasia, inflammation, and a variable risk of transformation into secondary acute myeloid leukemia.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Oscar Borsani
Definition: Relapse is still a major problem in AML because it occurs in about 60–80% of patients, even those who have previously achieved complete remission (CR), defined by the presence of ≤5% bone marrow (BM) leukemic cells. Thus, since CR is unable to predict the relapse risk, significantly more sensitive techniques aimed at identifying AML cells in BM or peripheral blood, a parameter termed measurable residual disease (MRD), have been developed. Among them, RT-qPCR, which analyses appropriate molecular markers, and multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), which analyses aberrantly expressed antigens, have been identified as the methods of choice for MRD detection.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Joan Oliva
Definition: Cell and gene therapies have been developing dramatically over the past decade. To face and adapt to the development of these new therapies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wrote and updated new guidelines from 2016 and keep updating them. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most used cells for treatment, far ahead from the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), based on registered clinical trials at clinicaltrials.gov. They are widely used because of their differentiation capacity and their anti-inflammatory properties, but some controversies still require clear answers. Additional studies are needed to determine the dosage, the number, and the route of injections (location and transplantation method), and if allogenic MSCs are safe compared to autologous MSC injection, including their long-term effect. In this review, we summarized the research our company is conducting with the adipose stromal cells in engineering cell sheets and their potential application
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Betlem Mezquita
Definition: Stem cells have the capacity of self-renewal and, through proliferation and differentiation, are responsible for the embryonic development, postnatal development, and the regeneration of tissues in the adult organism. Cancer stem cells, analogous to the physiological stem cells, have the capacity of self-renewal and may account for growth and recurrence of tumors. Development and regeneration of healthy tissues and tumors depend on the balance of different genomic and nongenomic signaling pathways that regulate stem cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation. During evolution, this balance became dependent on all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a molecule derived from the environmental factor vitamin A.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Anni Sjöblom
Definition: TATI, also known as pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) or serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal 1 type (SPINK1), is a trypsin inhibitor that functions mainly in the pancreas, where it serves as a suppressor of premature trypsinogen activation.
Entry Collection : Stem Cells and Cancer
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