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Environmental Sciences

Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jan 2022
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Definition: Soil-born plant pathogens, especially Agrobacterium, generally navigate their way to hosts through recognition of the root exudates by chemoreceptors. However, there is still a lack of appropriate identification of chemoreceptors and their ligands in Agrobacterium. Here, Atu0526, a sCache-type chemoreceptor from Agrobacterium fabrum C58, was confirmed as the receptor of a broad antibacterial agent, formic acid. The binding of formic acid to Atu0526 was screened using a thermo shift assay and verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. Inconsistent with the previously reported antimicrobial properties, formic acid was confirmed to be a chemoattractant to A. fabrum and could promote its growth. The chemotaxis of A. fabrum C58 toward formic acid was completely lost with the knock-out of atu0526, and regained with the complementation of the gene, indicating that Atu0526 is the only chemoreceptor for formic acid in A. fabrum C58.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
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Definition: Transformative agroecology has been recognized as a stepping stone to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), due to its great potential to build climate change-resilient farming systems while enhancing ecosystem services and reducing biodiversity loss. Understanding the agroecological elements that underlie the sustainability of an agroecosystem is an urgent matter, serving as the foundation for designing a truly transformative agroecosystem.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2022
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Definition: Agroforestry, a sustainable land-use system that combines the trees, crops, and livestock on the same piece of land, increases the overall productivity of the land and create a system that is scientifically sound, ecologically desirable, socially acceptable and practically feasible.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Aug 2021
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Definition: Mosses are one of the best bioindicators in the assessment of atmospheric aerosol pollution by heavy metals. Studies using mosses allow both short- and long-term air quality monitoring. The increasing contamination of the environment (including air) is causing a search for new, cheap and effective methods of monitoring its condition. Once such method is the use of mosses in active biomonitoring. The aim of the entry was to assess the atmospheric aerosol pollution with selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) from the smoke of fireworks used during New Year’s Eve in the years 2019/2020 and 2020/2021.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
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Definition: The GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project has the overall goal to develop a coordinated observing system to monitor mercury on a global scale. We present the long-term (2011 – 2020) air mercury monitoring data obtained at the Listvyanka station located at a shore of Lake Baikal, Siberia. The long-term monitoring shows obvious seasonal variation of the background mercury concentration in air, which increases in the cold and decreases in the warm season. The short-term anomalies are associated with the wind carrying the air from the industrial areas where several big coal-fired power plants are located. A positive correlation between the mercury, SO2 and NO2 concentrations is observed both in the short-term variations and in the monthly average concentrations. The analysis of forward and backward trajectories obtained with the HYSPLIT model demonstrates revealing of the mercury emissions sources. During the cruise of 2018, the continuous air mercury survey over Lake Baikal covered 1800 km. The average mercury concentration over Baikal is notably less in comparison with the average value obtained at the onshore Listvyanka station during the same days of cruise. That can lead to the conclusion that Baikal is a significant sink of the atmospheric mercury.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jan 2022
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Definition: Air pollution is a precursor to many health issues such as difficulty breathing, asthma, lung and heart diseases, and cancer.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Updated time: 31 May 2021
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Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jan 2022
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Definition: The accurate forecast of air temperature plays an important role in water resources management, land–atmosphere interaction, and agriculture. However, it is difficult to accurately predict air temperature due to its non-linear and chaotic nature. Several deep learning techniques have been proposed over the last few decades to forecast air temperature.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2022
Definition: The environmental quality of farms plays an important role in the food safety of the dairy industry because it may influence the microbial communities in milk. The microorganisms present in the different areas of a farm have an influence on this environmental quality, using the air as a vehicle of dissemination. However, the ability of this airborne microbial community to contaminate the milk, like the sources of origin of these microorganisms, has not been well studied in dairy farms until now.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2021
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Definition: Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major insect pest for alfalfa which can result in decreased plant nutrients, low yields, and even plant death. To identify the differentially expressed genes and metabolites in response to thrips in alfalfa, a combination of metabolomics and transcriptomics was employed using alfalfa (Caoyuan No. 2) with and without thrips infestation.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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