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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Alfred King Yin LAM
Definition: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a heterogenous group of diseases with different clinical be-haviour between adult and paediatric patients. In addition, three histological variants, oncocytic, myxoid and sarcomatoid are noted on the recent World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of ACC. A review of recent literature showed that the different types of ACC have distinctive demographic data, clinical presentation, pathology, biological behaviour, genomic and patients’ prognosis. In addition, recent updates of pathology staging for ACC allow refinement of prognos-tic grouping for planning treatment of the patients with ACC.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Janusz Blasiak
Definition: Aging induces several stress response pathways to counterbalance detrimental changes associated with this process. These pathways include nutrient signaling, proteostasis, mitochondrial quality control and DNA damage response. At the cellular level, these pathways are controlled by evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules, such as 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and sirtuins, including SIRT1. Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), encoded by the PPARGC1A gene, playing an important role in antioxidant defense and mitochondrial biogenesis, may interact with these molecules influencing lifespan and general fitness. Perturbation in the aging stress response may lead to aging-related disorders, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main reason for vision loss in the elderly. This is supported by studies showing an important role of disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism, DDR and autophagy in AMD pathogenesis. In addition, disturbed expression of PGC-1α was shown to associate with AMD. Therefore, the aging stress response may be critical for AMD pathogenesis, and further studies are needed to precisely determine mechanisms underlying its role in AMD.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: GOMATHY SETHURAMAN
Definition: Transformative agroecology has been recognized as a stepping stone to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), due to its great potential to build climate change-resilient farming systems while enhancing ecosystem services and reducing biodiversity loss. Understanding the agroecological elements that underlie the sustainability of an agroecosystem is an urgent matter, serving as the foundation for designing a truly transformative agroecosystem.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Himani Punia
Definition: The primary objectives of modern agriculture includes the environmental sustainability, low production costs, improved plants’ resilience to various biotic and abiotic stresses, and high sowing seed value. Delayed and inconsistent field emergence poses a significant threat in the production of agri-crop, especially during drought and adverse weather conditions. To open new routes of nutrients’ acquisition and revolutionizing the adapted solutions, stewardship planswill be needed to address these questions.One approach is the identification of plant based bioactive molecules capable of altering plant metabolism pathways which may enhance plant performance in a brief period of time and in a cost-effective manner.A biostimulant is a plant material, microorganism, or any other organic compound that not only improves the nutritional aspects, vitality, general health but also enhances the seed qualityperformance.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Mar 2021
Definition: The fruit, vegetable, legume, and cereal industries generate many wastes, representing an environmental pollution problem. However, these wastes are a rich source of antioxidant molecules such as terpenes, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and bioactive peptides with potential applications mainly in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and they exhibit multiple biological properties including antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antihypertensive, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. The aforementioned has increased studies on the recovery of antioxidant compounds using green technologies to value plant waste, since they represent more efficient and sustainable processes. In this review, the main antioxidant molecules from plants are briefly described and the advantages and disadvantages of the use of conventional and green extraction technologies used for the recovery and optimization of the yield of antioxidant naturals are detailed; finally, recent studies on biological properties of antioxidant molecules extracted from plant waste are presented here.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Nur Zuliani Ramli
Definition: This entry discusses on selected nutraceuticals and their plausible antioxidant effects on Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Nutraceuticals such as resveratrol, curcumin and vitamin E alleviate oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals, metal chelators, and enhance antioxidant enzymes. Additionally they regulate intracellular signaling such as inflammatory, survival and apoptotic pathways.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Md. Ataur Rahman
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of intracellular aggregate composed of heavily phosphorylated tau protein and extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques derived from proteolysis cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Autophagy refers to the lysosomal-mediated degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, which plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Importantly, recent studies reported that dysregulation of autophagy is associated in the pathogenesis of AD, and therefore, autophagy modulation has gained attention as a promising approach to treat AD pathogenesis. In AD, both the maturation of autolysosomes and its retrograde transports have been obstructed, which causes the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and eventually leads to degenerating and dystrophic neurites function. However, the mechanism of autophagy modulation in APP processing and its pathogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated in AD. In the early stage of AD, APP processing and Aβ accumulation-mediated autophagy facilitate the removal of toxic protein aggregates via mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. In addition, a number of autophagy-related genes (Atg) and APP are thought to influence the development of AD, providing a bidirectional link between autophagy and AD pathology.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Renata Anibaldi
Definition: Research has a critical role in supporting the implementation of farming practices that are appropriate for meeting food and climate security for a growing global population. Notwithstanding progress towards more sustainable agricultural production, the rate of change varies across and within regions and is, overall, too slow. Understanding what is and is not working at the implementation level and, critically, providing justified explanations on outcomes, is an important contribution of the literature. It is suggested that a greater application of theory in adoption research could increase the contribution of the literature.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Definition: Bio-oil is a the liquid phase obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass. The composition and amount of bio-oil generated depend not only on the type of the biomass but also on the conditions under which pyrolysis is performed. Most fossil fuels can be replaced by bio-oil-derived products. Thus, bio-oil can be used directly or co-fed along with fossil fuels in boilers, transformed into fuel for car engines by hydrodeoxygenation or even used as a more suitable source for hydrogen production than biomass. On the other hand, due to its rich composition in compounds resulting from the pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, bio-oil co-acts as a source of various value-added chemicals such as aromatic compounds.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Nibedita Saha
Definition: This entry deliberates about the importance of polymer based bioadhesive biomaterial’s medical application in healthcare and redefining healthcare management. Nowadays application of bioadhesion in health sector is one of the great interest for various researchers, due to its recent advances in their formulation development. Actually, this area of study is considered as an active multidisciplinary research approach, where engineers, scientists—including chemists, physicists, biologists, and medical experts—materials’ producers, and manufacturers combine their knowledge in order to provide a better healthcare. Moreover, while discussing about the implications of value-based healthcare, it is necessary to mention that health comprises three main domains namely: physical, mental, and social health that prioritized not only the quality healthcare, but it also enables to measure the outcomes of medical interventions. In addition, this conceptual article provides an understanding about the consequences of natural or synthetic polymer based bioadhesion of biomaterials and its significance for redefining healthcare management as a novel approach. Furthermore, research assumptions highlights that the quality healthcare concept has recently become a burning topic where, healthcare service providers, private research institutes, government authorities, public service boards, associations and academics took initiative to restructure the health care system to create value for patients and increase their satisfaction, and lead ultimately to a healthier society.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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