Browse by Subject
Environmental Sciences

Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

Submit
Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Marcelo I. Guzman
Definition: Atmospheric organic aerosols play a major role in climate, demanding a better understanding of their formation mechanisms by contributing multiphase chemical reactions with the participation of water. The sunlight driven aqueous photochemistry of small 2-oxocarboxylic acids is a potential major source of organic aerosol, which prompted the investigations into the mechanisms of glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid photochemistry reviewed here. While 2-oxocarboxylic acids can be contained or directly created in the particles, the majorities of these abundant and available molecules are in the gas phase and must first undergo the surface uptake process to react in, and on the surface, of aqueous particles. Thus, the work also reviews the acid-base reaction that occurs when gaseous pyruvic acid meets the interface of aqueous microdroplets, which is contrasted with the same process for acetic acid.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Zengyong Chu
Definition: Air pollution is becoming an increasingly important global issue. Toxic gases such as ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like phenol are very common air pollutants. To date, various sensing methods have been proposed to detect these toxic gases. Researchers are trying their best to build sensors with the lowest detection limit, the highest sensitivity, and the best selectivity. As a 2D material, graphene is very sensitive to many gases and so can be used for gas sensors. Recent studies have shown that graphene with a 3D structure can increase the gas sensitivity of the sensors. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensors can be upgraded from ppm level to several ppb level.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Rajesh Kumar Mishra
Definition: Recent advancement in controlling noise through sound absorption provides an opportunity to investigate various porous materials including fiber-based composites. Natural-fiber-based composites exhibit relatively good sound absorption capability due to their porous structure. Surface modification by alkali treatment can enhance the sound absorption performance. These materials can be used in buildings and interiors for efficient sound insulation. Natural-fiber-based composites have advantages such as high abrasive resistance, low emission of toxic fumes with heat, high specific strength, light weight, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: STAVROS PONIS
Definition: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Regina Duarte
Definition: Atmospheric aerosol deposition (wet and dry) is an important source of macro and micronutrients (N, P, C, Si, and Fe) to the oceans. Most of the mass flux of air particles is made of fine mineral particles emitted from arid or semi-arid areas (e.g., deserts) and transported over long distances until deposition to the oceans. However, this atmospheric deposition is affected by anthropogenic activities, which heavily impacts the content and composition of aerosol constituents, contributing to the presence of potentially toxic elements (e.g., Cu). Under this scenario, the deposition of natural and anthropogenic aerosols will impact the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and toxic elements in the ocean, also affecting (positively or negatively) primary productivity and, ultimately, the marine biota.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Arianna Latini
Definition: Fertilizers stand at the base of current agricultural practices, providing the nutrient sustainment required for growing plants.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Ahmed Laamrani
Definition: Globally, agricultural soils are being evaluated for their role in climate change regulation as a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration of organic carbon as soil organic matter. Scientists and policy analysts increasingly seek to develop programs and policies which recognize the importance of mitigation of climate change and insurance of ecological sustainability when managing agricultural soils.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Cristian Villagra
Definition: Pollinator biodiversity is greatly affected by industrialized agriculture practices. Agroecological alternatives for food production must be implemented.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: GOMATHY SETHURAMAN
Definition: Transformative agroecology has been recognized as a stepping stone to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), due to its great potential to build climate change-resilient farming systems while enhancing ecosystem services and reducing biodiversity loss. Understanding the agroecological elements that underlie the sustainability of an agroecosystem is an urgent matter, serving as the foundation for designing a truly transformative agroecosystem.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 16 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Paweł Świsłowski
Definition: Mosses are one of the best bioindicators in the assessment of atmospheric aerosol pollution by heavy metals. Studies using mosses allow both short- and long-term air quality monitoring. The increasing contamination of the environment (including air) is causing a search for new, cheap and effective methods of monitoring its condition. Once such method is the use of mosses in active biomonitoring. The aim of the entry was to assess the atmospheric aerosol pollution with selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) from the smoke of fireworks used during New Year’s Eve in the years 2019/2020 and 2020/2021.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 20