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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Zengyong Chu
Definition: Air pollution is becoming an increasingly important global issue. Toxic gases such as ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like phenol are very common air pollutants. To date, various sensing methods have been proposed to detect these toxic gases. Researchers are trying their best to build sensors with the lowest detection limit, the highest sensitivity, and the best selectivity. As a 2D material, graphene is very sensitive to many gases and so can be used for gas sensors. Recent studies have shown that graphene with a 3D structure can increase the gas sensitivity of the sensors. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensors can be upgraded from ppm level to several ppb level.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Rajesh Kumar Mishra
Definition: Recent advancement in controlling noise through sound absorption provides an opportunity to investigate various porous materials including fiber-based composites. Natural-fiber-based composites exhibit relatively good sound absorption capability due to their porous structure. Surface modification by alkali treatment can enhance the sound absorption performance. These materials can be used in buildings and interiors for efficient sound insulation. Natural-fiber-based composites have advantages such as high abrasive resistance, low emission of toxic fumes with heat, high specific strength, light weight, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: STAVROS PONIS
Definition: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Alfred King Yin LAM
Definition: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a heterogenous group of diseases with different clinical be-haviour between adult and paediatric patients. In addition, three histological variants, oncocytic, myxoid and sarcomatoid are noted on the recent World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of ACC. A review of recent literature showed that the different types of ACC have distinctive demographic data, clinical presentation, pathology, biological behaviour, genomic and patients’ prognosis. In addition, recent updates of pathology staging for ACC allow refinement of prognos-tic grouping for planning treatment of the patients with ACC.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Regina Duarte
Definition: Atmospheric aerosol deposition (wet and dry) is an important source of macro and micronutrients (N, P, C, Si, and Fe) to the oceans. Most of the mass flux of air particles is made of fine mineral particles emitted from arid or semi-arid areas (e.g., deserts) and transported over long distances until deposition to the oceans. However, this atmospheric deposition is affected by anthropogenic activities, which heavily impacts the content and composition of aerosol constituents, contributing to the presence of potentially toxic elements (e.g., Cu). Under this scenario, the deposition of natural and anthropogenic aerosols will impact the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and toxic elements in the ocean, also affecting (positively or negatively) primary productivity and, ultimately, the marine biota.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Janusz Blasiak
Definition: Aging induces several stress response pathways to counterbalance detrimental changes associated with this process. These pathways include nutrient signaling, proteostasis, mitochondrial quality control and DNA damage response. At the cellular level, these pathways are controlled by evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules, such as 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and sirtuins, including SIRT1. Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), encoded by the PPARGC1A gene, playing an important role in antioxidant defense and mitochondrial biogenesis, may interact with these molecules influencing lifespan and general fitness. Perturbation in the aging stress response may lead to aging-related disorders, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main reason for vision loss in the elderly. This is supported by studies showing an important role of disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism, DDR and autophagy in AMD pathogenesis. In addition, disturbed expression of PGC-1α was shown to associate with AMD. Therefore, the aging stress response may be critical for AMD pathogenesis, and further studies are needed to precisely determine mechanisms underlying its role in AMD.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Cristian Villagra
Definition: Pollinator biodiversity is greatly affected by industrialized agriculture practices. Agroecological alternatives for food production must be implemented.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: GOMATHY SETHURAMAN
Definition: Transformative agroecology has been recognized as a stepping stone to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), due to its great potential to build climate change-resilient farming systems while enhancing ecosystem services and reducing biodiversity loss. Understanding the agroecological elements that underlie the sustainability of an agroecosystem is an urgent matter, serving as the foundation for designing a truly transformative agroecosystem.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Nikolay Mashyanov
Definition: The GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project has the overall goal to develop a coordinated observing system to monitor mercury on a global scale. We present the long-term (2011 – 2020) air mercury monitoring data obtained at the Listvyanka station located at a shore of Lake Baikal, Siberia. The long-term monitoring shows obvious seasonal variation of the background mercury concentration in air, which increases in the cold and decreases in the warm season. The short-term anomalies are associated with the wind carrying the air from the industrial areas where several big coal-fired power plants are located. A positive correlation between the mercury, SO2 and NO2 concentrations is observed both in the short-term variations and in the monthly average concentrations. The analysis of forward and backward trajectories obtained with the HYSPLIT model demonstrates revealing of the mercury emissions sources. During the cruise of 2018, the continuous air mercury survey over Lake Baikal covered 1800 km. The average mercury concentration over Baikal is notably less in comparison with the average value obtained at the onshore Listvyanka station during the same days of cruise. That can lead to the conclusion that Baikal is a significant sink of the atmospheric mercury.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 May 2021
Submitted by: Oyetola Ogunkunle
Definition: Air pollution is a precursor to many health issues such as difficulty breathing, asthma, lung and heart diseases, and cancer.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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