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IT Support in the Healthcare Sector
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Cecilia Ambrosi
Definition: Acinetobacter baumannii is regarded as a life-threatening pathogen associated with community-acquired and nosocomial infections, mainly pneumonia.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jun 2021
Submitted by: František Babič
Definition: Multimorbidity refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in one person. Therefore, patients with multimorbidity have multiple and special care needs. However, in practice it is difficult to meet these needs because the organizational processes of current healthcare systems tend to be tailored to a single disease. To improve clinical decision making and patient care in multimorbidity, a radical change in the problem-solving approach to medical research and treatment is needed. In addition to the traditional reductionist approach, we propose interactive research supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced big data analytics. Such research approach, when applied to data routinely collected in healthcare settings, provides an integrated platform for research tasks related to multimorbidity. This may include, for example, prediction, correlation, and classification problems based on multiple interaction factors. However, to realize the idea of this paradigm shift in multimorbidity research, the optimization, standardization, and most importantly, the integration of electronic health data into a common national and international research infrastructure is needed. Ultimately, there is a need for the integration and implementation of efficient AI approaches, particularly deep learning, into clinical routine directly within the workflows of the medical professionals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marco Serafin
Definition: The recent introduction of three-dimensional (3D) printing is revolutionizing dentistry and is even being applied to orthodontic treatment of malocclusion. Clear, personalized, removable aligners are a suitable alternative to conventional orthodontic appliances, offering a more comfortable and efficient solution for patients. Including improved oral hygiene and aesthetics during treatment. Contemporarily, clear aligners are produced by a thermoforming process using various types of thermoplastic materials. The thermoforming procedure alters the properties of the material, and the intraoral environment further modifies the properties of a clear aligner, affecting overall performance of the material. Direct 3D printing offers the creation of highly precise clear aligners with soft edges, digitally designed and identically reproduced for an entire set of treatment aligners; offering a better fit, higher efficacy, and reproducibility. Despite the known benefits of 3D printing and the popularity of its dental applications, very limited technical and clinical data are available in the literature about directly printed clear aligners.
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Videos
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Leila Ismail
Definition: Blockchain is a disruptive technology for shaping the next era of a healthcare system striving for efficient and effective patient care. This is thanks to its peer-to-peer, secure, and transparent characteristics. On the other hand, cloud computing made its way into the healthcare system thanks to its elasticity and cost-efficiency nature. However, cloud-based systems fail to provide a secured and private patient-centric cohesive view to multiple healthcare stakeholders. In this situation, blockchain provides solutions to address security and privacy concerns of the cloud because of its decentralization feature combined with data security and privacy, while cloud provides solutions to the blockchain scalability and efficiency challenges. Therefore a novel paradigm of blockchain-cloud integration (BcC) emerges for the domain of healthcare.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Definition: Inappropriate laboratory test selection in the form of overutilization as well as underutilization frequently occurs despite available guidelines. There is broad approval among laboratory specialists as well as clinicians that demand management strategies are useful tools to avoid this issue. Most of these tools, which may be adopted to local settings, are based on automated algorithms or other types of machine learning. We believe that artificial intelligence may help to further improve these available tools.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mirko Duradoni
Definition: Technological advancement is constantly evolving, and it is also developing in the mental health field. Various applications, often based on virtual reality, have been implemented to carry out psychological assessments and interventions, using innovative human–machine interaction systems. In this context, the LEAP Motion sensing technology has raised interest, since it allows for more natural interactions with digital contents, via an optical tracking of hand and finger movements.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Tommasina Pianese
Definition: The application of social networks in the health domain has become increasingly prevalent. They are web-based technologies which bring together a group of people and health-care providers having in common health-related interests, who share text, image, video and audio contents and interact with each other. This explains the increasing amount of attention paid to this topic by researchers who have investigated a variety of issues dealing with the specific applications in the health-care industry. The aim of this study is to systematize this fragmented body of literature, and provide a comprehensive and multi-level overview of the studies that has been carried out to date on social network uses in healthcare, taking into account the great level of diversity that characterizes this industry. To this end, we conduct a scoping review enabling to identify the major research streams, whose aggregate knowledge are discussed according to three levels of analysis that reflect the viewpoints of the major actors using social networks for health-care purposes, i.e., governments, health-care providers (including health-care organizations and professionals) and social networks’ users (including ill patients and general public). We conclude by proposing directions for future research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Definition: Over the past two decades, virtual reality technology (VRT)-based rehabilitation has been increasingly examined and applied to assist patient recovery in the physical and cognitive domains. The advantages of the use of VRT in the neurorehabilitation field consist of the possibility of training an impaired function as a way to stimulate neuron reorganization (to maximize motor learning and neuroplasticity) and restoring and regaining functions and abilities by interacting with a safe and nonthreatening yet realistic virtual reality environment (VRE). Furthermore, VREs can be tailored to patient needs and provide personalized feedback on performance. VREs may also support cognitive training and increases patient motivation and enjoyment. Despite these potential advantages, there are inconclusive data about the usefulness of VRT in neurorehabilitation settings, and some issues on feasibility and safety remain to be ascertained for some neurological populations.
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