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Pain and Chronic Pain
Academic Editor: James Adams
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Samo Fokter
Definition: Titanium (Ti) alloys have been proven to be one of the most suitable materials for orthopaedic implants. Dual modular stems have been introduced to primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) to enable better control of the femoral offset, leg length, and hip stability. However, this recent innovation in the femoral stem design has proven itself to be an innovation trap actually.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Vimala Bharadwaj
Definition: Pain, and particularly chronic pain, remains one of the most debilitating and difficult to treat conditions in medicine. Chronic pain is difficult to treat, in part, because it is associated with plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Polypeptides are linear organic polymers that are highly selective molecules for neurotransmitter and other nervous system receptors sites, including those associated with pain and analgesia, so have tremendous potential as pain therapeutics. However, delivery of polypeptides to the nervous system is largely limited due to rapid degradation within the peripheral circulation as well as the blood-brain barrier. One strategy that has been shown to be successful in nervous system deposition of polypeptides is intranasal (IN) delivery. In this narrative review, we discuss the delivery of polypeptides into the peripheral and central nervous systems following IN administration. We briefly discuss the mechanism of delivery via the nasal-cerebral pathway. We review recent studies that demonstrate that polypeptides such as oxytocin, delivered IN, not only reach key pain modulating regions in the nervous system but in doing so, evoke significant analgesic effects. IN administration of polypeptides has tremendous potential to provide non-invasive, rapid, and effective methods of delivery to the nervous system for chronic pain treatment and management.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rashid Giniatullin
Definition: Acute pain plays the vital role protecting our health whereas chronic and pathological pain are debilitating conditions. However molecular mechanisms of pain which are the keys for pain relief remain largely unaddressed. Nevertheless, new molecular actors with important roles in pain mechanisms are being characterized, such as the mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels. This study presents modern trends and promising advances in the field of molecular mechanisms of pain.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Guglielmo Stabile
Definition: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is one of the most common causes of primary amenorrhea, second only to gonadic dysgenesis, having a frequency of 1:4000–5000 women . This syndrome manifests as an aplasia or hypoplasia of the uterus and the upper two-thirds of the vagina, regular ovaries and tubes and a normal development of secondary sexual characteristics . The karyotype is generally normal (46, XX) and the manifestation is secondary to an abnormal development of the müllerian ducts.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Alan David Kaye
Definition: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is a collection of symptoms in the shoulder and upper extremity area that results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Identification of thoracic outlet syndrome is complex and a thorough clinical examination in addition to appropriate clinical testing can result in diagnosis. Practitioners must consider the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome in their differential diagnosis for shoulder and upper extremity pain symptoms so that patients are directed appropriately to timely interventions. Patients with a definitive etiology who have failed conservative management are ideal candidates for surgical correction. This manuscript will discuss thoracic outlet syndrome, occurrence, physical presentation, clinical implications, and diagnosis and management.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mark I. Johnson
Definition: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) refers to the use of a portable device that generates pulsed electrical currents that are delivered across the intact surface of the skin via conducting electrodes to stimulate peripheral nerves.
Entry Collection : Pain and Chronic Pain
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