Pain and Chronic Pain
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Definition: Acute pain plays the vital role protecting our health whereas chronic and pathological pain are debilitating conditions. However molecular mechanisms of pain which are the keys for pain relief remain largely unaddressed. Nevertheless, new molecular actors with important roles in pain mechanisms are being characterized, such as the mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels. This study presents modern trends and promising advances in the field of molecular mechanisms of pain.
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Definition: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is a collection of symptoms in the shoulder and upper extremity area that results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Identification of thoracic outlet syndrome is complex and a thorough clinical examination in addition to appropriate clinical testing can result in diagnosis. Practitioners must consider the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome in their differential diagnosis for shoulder and upper extremity pain symptoms so that patients are directed appropriately to timely interventions. Patients with a definitive etiology who have failed conservative management are ideal candidates for surgical correction. This manuscript will discuss thoracic outlet syndrome, occurrence, physical presentation, clinical implications, and diagnosis and management.
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Definition: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) refers to the use of a portable device that generates pulsed electrical currents that are delivered across the intact surface of the skin via conducting electrodes to stimulate peripheral nerves.