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Sustainable and Resource – Efficient Homes and Communities
Academic Editor: Avi Friedman
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: I. M. Rizwanul Fattah
Definition: Compression ignition engines play a significant role in the development of a country. They are widely used due to their innate properties such as high efficiency, high power output, and durability. However, they are considered one of the key contributors to transport-related emissions and have recently been identified as carcinogenic. Thus, it is important to modify the designs and processes before, during, and after combustion to reduce the emissions to meet the strict emission regulations.
Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Nikos Krigas
Definition: From an ornamental viewpoint, tulips are famous clonally propagated crops. This research focuses on 15 wild-growing Greek tulip species including 11 range-restricted species, i.e., six Greek endemics and five Balkan or Aegean endemics and subendemics, among which seven are currently threatened with extinction (two Critically Endangered, three Endangered and two Vulnerable). The results of this study on the Greek tulips showed that there are both well-established value chains and gaps in the market regarding the “botanical tulips” of Greece.
Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Taghi Miri
Definition: Urban civilization has a high impact on the environment and human health. The pollution level of indoor air can be 2–5 times higher than the outdoor air pollution, and sometimes it reaches up to 100 times or more in natural/mechanical ventilated buildings. Even though people spend about 90% of their time indoors, the importance of indoor air quality is less noticed. Cleaning indoor air using plants is an affordable and more environmentally friendly means to purify polluted air. Furthermore, studies show that indoor plants can be used to regulate building temperature, decrease noise levels, and alleviate social stress. Sources of indoor air pollutants and their impact on human health are briefly discussed in our paper. The available literature on phytoremediation, including experimental works for removing volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate matter from the indoor air and associated challenges and opportunities, are reviewed. The potential role of green walls and potted plants for improving indoor air quality is examined. A list of plant species suitable for indoor air phytoremediation is proposed. Our review paper will help in making informed decisions about integrating plants into the interior building design.
Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Yazan Abu Aisheh
Definition: The Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is one of the most dangerous industries due to its unique nature. Safety is a critical issue in developed and developing countries. Barriers that hinder the implementation of safety in projects and ways to improve safety performance was illustrated in this entry.
Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Jamal Khatib
Definition: Baked clay bricks (Impunyu) is the dominant wall construction material in Rwanda. Clay deposits in the country’s lowlands are utilized for baked clay bricks. Despite the ongoing campaign, the use of wood by some local brick producers is unfriendly to the environment. Recent research has called for alternative methods in order to reduce the cost and impact on the environment. Earlier efforts with compressed earth blocks were saddled with weight and a substantial use of cement for good surface texture and adequate resistance against surface erosion. This research explored the potentials of using an appropriate dose of clay (from Muhanzi), volcanic light aggregate (Amakoro, (from Musanze)), and cement to produce unbaked shelled compressed earth blocks (SCEB). SCEB is a compressed earth block with an outer shell and inner core of different cement content or materials, compressed into a unit block. The result is a masonry unit with a higher surface resistance, durability, and desirable architectural effect produced with a 60% reduction in cement content. A weight reduction of 12% was achieved with an optimum content of 33% of the volcanic lightweight aggregate. A cost reduction of 25% was recorded over conventional compressed earth brick walls and a 54% over sand-cement block walls. Possible future trends were also identified with appreciable prospects in earthen architecture.