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Viral Subversion of Host Cell Biochemical and Structural Architecture

Viral Subversion of Host Cell Biochemical and Structural Architecture

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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Hernan Garcia-Ruiz
Definition: Viruses are dependent on host factors at all parts of the infection cycle, such as translation, genome replication, encapsidation, and cell-to-cell and systemic movement. RNA viruses replicate their genome in compartments associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts, and mitochondria or peroxisome membranes. In contrast, DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus. Viral infection causes changes in plant gene expression and in the subcellular localization of some host proteins. These changes may support or inhibit virus accumulation and spread. Here, we review host proteins that change their subcellular localization in the presence of a plant virus. The most frequent change is the movement of host cytoplasmic proteins into the sites of virus replication through interactions with viral proteins, and the protein contributes to essential viral processes. In contrast, only a small number of studies document changes in the subcellular localization of proteins with antiviral activity. Understanding the changes in the subcellular localization of host proteins during plant virus infection provides novel insights into the mechanisms of plant–virus interactions and may help the identification of targets for designing genetic resistance to plant viruses.
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Eve-Isabelle PECHEUR
Definition: Chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases, predisposing to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis is characterized by an overly abundant accumulation of components of the hepatic extracellular matrix, such as collagen and elastin, with consequences on the properties of this microenvironment and cancer initiation and growth. This review will provide an update on mechanistic concepts of HCV-related liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and early stages of carcinogenesis, with a dissection of the molecular details of the cross-talk during disease progression between hepatocytes, the extracellular matrix and hepatic stellate cells.
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Shih-Yen Lo
Definition: HCV genomic RNA replication occurs in the replication organelles (RO) and is tightly linked to ER membrane alterations containing replication complexes (proteins NS3 to NS5B). The amplification of HCV genomic RNA could be regulated by the RO biogenesis, the viral RNA structure (i.e., cis-acting replication elements), and both viral and cellular proteins. Studies on HCV replication have led to the development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting the replication complex.
Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Jun Arii
Definition: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicates its genome and packages it into capsids within the nucleus. HSV-1 has evolved a complex mechanism of nuclear egress whereby nascent capsids bud on the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. The viral-encoded nuclear egress complex (NEC) plays a crucial role in this vesicle-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nevertheless, similar system mediates the movement of other cellular macromolecular complexes in normal cells. Therefore, HSV-1 may utilize viral proteins to hijack the cellular machinery in order to facilitate capsid transport.
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Shunbin Ning
Definition: The tripartite motif (TRIM) family comprises at least 80 members in humans, with most having ubiquitin or SUMO E3 ligase activity conferred by their N-terminal RING domain. TRIMs regulate a wide range of processes in ubiquitination- or sumoylation-dependent manners in most cases, and fewer as adaptors. Their roles in the regulation of viral infections, autophagy, cell cycle progression, DNA damage and other stress responses, and carcinogenesis are being increasingly appreciated, and their E3 ligase activities are attractive targets for developing specific immunotherapeutic strategies for immune diseases and cancers.