Updated time: 29 Mar 2021
Definition: Behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) frequently occur during the disease progression; to treat agitation, aggressiveness, delusions and hallucinations, the use of antipsychotic drugs should be limited, due to their safety issues.
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Definition: Performance in one cognitive domain, such as attentional control, is positively correlated with performance in all other cognitive domains, such as reading comprehension, and performance in all of these domains is correlated with current and predictive of later health outcomes. These relations suggest a common biological mechanism that contributes to cognition and health; moreover, this mechanism has been linked to systematic and parallel declines in cognition and health with normal aging. Mitochondrial functioning, including contributions to cellular energy production, control of oxidative stress, immunity, and intracellular signaling (among others), is well situated to explain at least some of these links. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the cognitive declines (e.g., memory loss) associated with age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, but the links are broader than this. A focus on mitochondrial functioning provides a means to better integrate research in cell biology and cognitive science, and in doing so will expand our understanding of the fundamental biological mechanisms that underlie brain and cognitive development and functioning and result in more sensitive assessments of age- and pathology-related changes in cognition.
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Histopathologically, AD presents with two hallmarks: neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and aggregates of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) both in the brain parenchyma as neuritic plaques, and around blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). According to the vascular hypothesis of AD, vascular risk factors can result in dysregulation of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and hypoxia.