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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ivan Okhrimenko
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of neurodegenerative disease in the world. Genetic evidence strongly suggests that aberrant generation, aggregation, and/or clearance of neurotoxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) triggers the disease. Aβ accumulates at the points of contact of neurons in ordered cords and fibrils, forming the so-called senile plaques. Aβ isoforms of different lengths are found in healthy human brains regardless of age and appear to play a role in signaling pathways in the brain and to have neuroprotective properties at low concentrations. This entry describes molecular mechanisms of amyloid-β precursor protein processing in AD.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Guodong Fu
Definition: Thyroid cancer has the most rapidly increasing incidence rate among all major cancers, with a triple increase from 4.5 to 14.4 per 100,000 population during 1974–2013. It was estimated 52,890 new cases in the United States in 2020 and contributed to 0.36% of all cancer deaths. Most primary thyroid cancers are follicular cell-derived epithelial tumors, making up four main pathological carcinoma types: papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Fabio Monzani
Definition: Behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) frequently occur during the disease progression; to treat agitation, aggressiveness, delusions and hallucinations, the use of antipsychotic drugs should be limited, due to their safety issues.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 May 2021
Submitted by: Roberta Cascella
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by amyloid β-protein deposition in senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles consisting of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein, and neuronal loss leading to cognitive decline and dementia. Despite extensive research, the exact mechanisms underlying AD remain unknown and effective treatment is not available. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain AD pathophysiology; however, there is general consensus that the abnormal aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is the initial event triggering a pathogenic cascade of degenerating events in cholinergic neurons. The dysregulation of calcium homeostasis has been studied considerably to clarify the mechanisms of neurodegeneration induced by Aβ. Intracellular calcium acts as a second messenger and plays a key role in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as neural growth and differentiation, action potential, and synaptic plasticity. The calcium hypothesis of AD posits that activation of the amyloidogenic pathway affects neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and the mechanisms responsible for learning and memory. Aβ can disrupt Ca2+ signaling through several mechanisms, by increasing the influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space and by activating its release from intracellular stores. Here, we review the different molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in calcium dysregulation in AD and possible therapeutic strategies for improving the treatment.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Brigida Anna Maiorano
Definition: Therapeutic cancer vaccines target TAAs alongside adjuvant molecules that can elicit specific antibodies or cytotoxic immune responses against cancer cells. There are different ways to present TAAs to the immune system. DNA and RNA encoding TAAs or whole peptides can be recognized and processed by the APCs; tumor cell lines express TAAs and can chemotactically attract APCs; viral vectors transfect APCs after being loaded with prespecified antigens; finally, DCs act as APCs and can be loaded with TAAs.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Silvia Di Agostino
Definition: In human cancer, circular RNAs (circRNAs) were implicated in the control of oncogenic activities such as tumor cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. The most widely described mechanism of action of circRNAs is their ability to act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) for miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs, thus impacting along their axis, despite the fact that a variety of additional mechanisms of action are emerging, representing an open and expanding field of study.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Biography
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Christine Jean
Abstract: Solid cancer progression is dictated by neoplastic cell features and pro-tumoral crosstalks with their microenvironment. Stroma modifications, such as fibroblast activation into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, are now recognized as critical events for cancer progression and as potential therapeutic or diagnostic targets.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Srikanth Umakanthan
Definition: Global genomic studies have detected the role of genomic alterations in the pathogenesis of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors. EBV oncoproteins cause a vital shift of EBV from an infectious virus to an oncogenic form during the latent and lytic phase within the lymphoid B cells and epithelial cells. This epigenetic alteration modulates the virus and host genomes and inactivates and disrupts numerous tumor suppressors and signaling pathways. Genomic profiling has played the main role in identifying EBV cancer pathogenesis and its related targeted therapies.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Paulo Matos
Definition: The development of tumors requires an initiator event, usually exposure to DNA damaging agents that cause genetic alterations such as gene mutations or chromosomal abnormalities, leading to deregulated cell proliferation. Although the mere stochastic accumulation of further mutations may cause tumor progression, it is now clear that an inflammatory microenvironment has a major tumor-promoting influence on initiated cells, in particular when a chronic inflammatory reaction already existed before the initiated tumor cell was formed. Moreover, inflammatory cells become mobilized in response to signals emanating from tumor cells. In both cases, the microenvironment provides signals that initiated tumor cells perceive by membrane receptors and transduce via downstream kinase cascades to modulate multiple cellular processes and respond with changes in cell gene expression, metabolism, and morphology. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors are examples of major signals secreted by immune cells, fibroblast, and endothelial cells and mediate an intricate cell-cell crosstalk in an inflammatory microenvironment, which contributes to increased cancer cell survival, phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to surrounding tissue conditions. Eventually, consequent changes in extracellular matrix stiffness and architecture, coupled with additional genetic alterations, further fortify the malignant progression of tumor cells, priming them for invasion and metastasis.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Berend Beumer
Definition: For patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, it is important to know whether liver transplantation offers a survival benefit over liver resection. Patients receiving transplantation often have different characteristics in terms of their cancer stage and liver function compared to those being resected. This makes a comparison of the two treatment modalities challenging. This article presents a critical appraisal of the currently available literature. We not only provide a summary of the main results of individual articles but also describe their strengths and weaknesses, the relationships among them, and their trends. As a result, we suggest the regression discontinuity design for future studies that uses thresholds of a treatment guideline to help ensure that the groups are more comparable.
Entry Collection : Solid Tumors
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