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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Carmen de Jesús Gil
Definition: Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated skin disease resulting from epithelial and immunological cells’ interactions, which affects around 2% of the population worldwide. Its onset is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, particularly infections among which Streptococcus pyogenes is the best characterized. However, the commensal fungusCandida albicans has been also associated to triggering psoriasis. Here we discuss what it is known about the link betweeen Candida and psoriasis pathogenesis.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Dimitri Kasakovski
Definition: Cutaneous Melanoma (CM), arising from pigment-producing melanocytes in the skin, is an aggressive cancer with high metastatic potential. While cutaneous melanoma represents only a fraction of all skin cancers (<5%), it accounts for most skin-cancer-related deaths worldwide. Immune checkpoint inhibition has been the first therapeutic approach to significantly benefit patient survival after treatment. Nevertheless, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and the intrinsic and acquired treatment resistance of melanoma remain crucial challenges. Combining local and systemic treatment offers the potential to augment therapeutic response and overcome resistance, although, complex drug combinations can harbor an increased risk of immune-related adverse events.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Woong Mo Yang
Definition: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic cutaneous disorder that is characterized by severe eczematous inflammation, swelling, and lichenification. Activation of T helper (Th)-22 cells by allergens leads to epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis at the chronic phase of AD. Derma-Hc is composed of five natural herbs with anti-AD effects, such as Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., Cryptotympana pustulata Fabr., Angelica sinensis Diels, Arctium lappa L. In this study, the ameliorative effect of Derma-Hc on cutaneous lichenification in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzne (DNCB)-induced AD was investigated. The dorsal skin of mice was sensitized with DNCB to induce AD-like skin lesions. The dermatitis score and frequency of scratching were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and dermis was measured by staining with H&E. In addition, infiltration of the mast cell was observed by staining with toluidine blue. Then, desmosomal cadherin, DSC1 was examined by immunofluorescence. Pathological mechanisms involved in lichenification were analyzed in AD-like skin lesions and TNF-α + IFN-γ-treated with human keratinocytes including keratinocyte differentiation genes and JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway with IL-22 by RT-PCR and western blotting. Topical treatment of Derma-Hc improved AD-like symptoms such as dryness, edema and lichenefication and decreased the number of scratches. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Derma-Hc significantly inhibited epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and mast cells infiltration.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Hidde M Kroon
Definition: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) and hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) are used to treat melanoma in-transit metastases and unresectable sarcoma confined to the limb utilizing the effect of high-dose loco-regional chemotherapy, normally melphalan +/- actinomycin-D. Both procedures are able to provide high response rates in patients with numerous or bulky lesions in whom other loco-regional treatments are less effective. In comparison to systemic therapies, on the other hand, ILI and HILP result less in severe systemic side-effects. Although in principle ILI and HILP are similar procedures, ILI is technically simpler to perform and takes advantage of the hypoxic and acidotic environment in the isolated limb, potentiating anti-tumour activity of the cytotoxic agents.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Mukesh Kumar
Definition: Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2) is a class A GPCR expressed on mast cells. Mast cells are granulated tissue-resident cells known for host cell response, allergic response, and vascular homeostasis.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Hans Ensikat
Definition: True stinging hairs are highly specialized plant structures that are able to inject a physiologically active liquid into the skin. They can be classified into two basic types: Urtica-type stinging hairs with the classical “hypodermic syringe” mechanism expelling only liquid, and Tragia-type stinging hairs expelling a liquid together with a sharp crystal. Since the middle of the 20th century, neurotransmitters(acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin) have been repeatedly detected in stinging hairs of Urticaceae; these substances can explain some of the physiological effects of stinging hairs, but fail to completely explain neuropathic effects, pointing to some yet unidentified neurotoxins.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gerardo Cazzato
Definition: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a very rare entity of soft tissue considered a “neoplasm of uncertain behaviour of connective or other soft tissue” by the World Health Organization (2020).
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Adam Reich
Definition: Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease with a genetic background that involves almost 3% of the general population worldwide. About 70-80% of psoriatic patients suffer from pruritus. Despite its high prevalence in psoriasis, its pathogenesis still remains unclear.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Mar 2021
Submitted by: BERTINO LUCREZIA
Definition: The link between Psoriasis and sport is a controversial issue. Physical activity has been associated to Pso in a negative way, even if recent studies have highlighted the potential beneficial effect on the natural course of the disease and, as consequence, on patients’ quality of life (QoL).
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Terenzio Cosio
Definition: Trifarotene is a new fourth-generation retinoid with a selective action on RAR-γ.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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