Browse by Subject
Biopharmaceuticals Technology

Neurodegeneration refers to the progressive loss of neuron structure or function, which may eventually lead to cell death. Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and prion disease, are the results of neurodegenerative processes. Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuits in the brain, from molecules to systems. Since there is no known method to reverse the progressive degeneration of neurons, these diseases are considered incurable. Biomedical research has revealed many similarities between these diseases at the subcellular level, including atypical protein assembly (such as protein diseases) and induction of cell death. These similarities indicate that progress in the treatment of one neurodegenerative disease may also improve other diseases. This collection of entries aims to collect various medical research results related to neurodegeneration. We invite researchers to share their new results and ideas related to neurodegeneration.

Submit
Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Manuel Varela
Definition: Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. These antimicrobial resistance mechanisms include active antimicrobial efflux, reduced drug entry into cells of pathogens, enzymatic metabolism of antimicrobial agents to inactive products, biofilm formation, altered drug targets, and protection of antimicrobial targets. These microbial systems represent suitable focuses for investigation to establish the means for their circumvention and to reestablish therapeutic effectiveness.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Olga Shilova
Definition: Barnase is an extracellular ribonuclease secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens that was originally studied as a small stable enzyme with robust folding. The identification of barnase intracellular inhibitor barstar led to the discovery of an incredibly strong protein-protein interaction. Together, barnase and barstar provide a fully genetically encoded toxin-antitoxin pair having an extremely low dissociation constant. Moreover, compared to other dimerization systems, the barnase-barstar module provides the exact one-to-one ratio of the complex components and possesses high stability of each component in a complex and high solubility in aqueous solutions without self-aggregation. The unique properties of barnase and barstar allow the application of this pair for the engineering of different variants of targeted anticancer compounds and cytotoxic supramolecular complexes. Using barnase in suicide gene therapy has also found its niche in anticancer therapy.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 21 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Saad Alghamdi
Definition: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have become one of the most popular metal oxide nanoparticles and recently emerged as a promising potential candidate in the fields of optical, electrical, food packaging, and biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, and low cost. They have a role in cell apoptosis, as they trigger excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and release zinc ions (Zn2+) that induce cell death. The zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using the plant extracts appear to be simple, safer, sustainable, and more environmentally friendly compared to the physical and chemical routes. These biosynthesized nanoparticles possess strong biological activities and are in use for various biological applications in several industries. Initially, the present review discusses the synthesis and recent advances of zinc oxide nanoparticles from plant sources (such as leaves, stems, bark, roots, rhizomes, fruits, flowers, and seeds) and their biomedical applications (such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, photocatalytic, wound healing, and drug delivery), followed by their mechanisms of action involved in detail.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Blessing Aderibigbe
Definition: Metastatic bone cancer occurs in every type of cancer but is prevalent in lung, breast, and prostate cancers. These metastases can cause extensive morbidity, including a range of skeletal-related events, often painful and linked with substantial hospital resource usage. The treatment used is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. However, anticancer drugs are still limited because of severe side effects, drug resistance, poor blood supply, and non-specific drug uptake, necessitating high toxic doses. Bisphosphonates are the dominant class of drugs used to inhibit metastatic bone cancer. It is also used to treat osteoporosis and other bone diseases. However, bisphosphonate also suffers from serious side effects. Thus, there is a serious need to develop bisphosphonate conjugates with promising therapeutic outcomes for treating metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis. This review article focuses on the biological outcomes of designed bisphosphonate-based conjugates for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Md Abdul Hannan
Definition: Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), a highly valued nutraceutical herb with a wide array of health benefits, has attracted growing interest from health-conscious individuals, the scientific community, and pharmaceutical industries. The pleiotropic pharmacological effects of black cumin, and its main bioactive component thymoquinone (TQ), have been manifested by their ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation, and to promote immunity, cell survival, and energy metabolism, which underlie diverse health benefits, including protection against metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive, hepatic, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and neurological disorders, cancer, and so on. Furthermore, black cumin acts as an antidote, mitigating various toxicities and drug-induced side effects.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 18 Oct 2021
Definition: Drimia (synonym Urginea) plants are bulbous plants belonging to the family Asparagaceae (formerly the family Hyacinthaceae) and are distinctive, powerful medicinal plants. Just some species are indigenous to South Africa and have been traditionally utilized for centuries to cure various diseases and/or ailments. They have been recognized among the most famous and used medicinal plants in South Africa. Traditionally, the plants are used for various illnesses such as dropsy, respiratory disease, bone and joint complications, skin disorders, epilepsy and cancer. A number of studies have reported biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer activities. Their bulbs are a popular treatment for colds, measles, pneumonia, coughs, fever and headaches.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Yoon-Yen Yow
Definition: Despite the progressive advances, current standards of treatments for peripheral nerve injury do not guarantee complete recovery. Thus, alternative therapeutic interventions should be considered. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are widely explored for their therapeutic value, but their potential use in peripheral nerve regeneration is underappreciated. Various CAMs enhanced proliferation and migration of Schwann cells in vitro, primarily through activation of MAPK pathway and FGF-2 signaling, respectively. Animal studies demonstrated the ability of CAMs to promote peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery, which are partially associated with modulations of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-apoptotic signaling.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Rodrigo Araldi
Definition: The exosome-mediated crosstalk between cancer and non-cancer cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to the acquisition of all hallmarks of cancer and leads to the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which exhibit resistance to a range of anticancer drugs.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Rosa Maria Vitale
Definition: The potential, multifaceted therapeutic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), a major constituent derived from the Cannabis sativa plant, covers a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, ranging from anxiety to pediatric epilepsy and drug addiction. However, the molecular targets responsible for these effects have been only partially identified. In this view, the involvement of the orexin system, the key regulator in arousal and the sleep/wake cycle, and in motivation and reward processes, including drug addiction, prompted us to explore, using computational and experimental approaches, the possibility that CBD could act as a ligand of orexin receptors, orexin 1 receptor of type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R). Ligand-binding assays showed that CBD is a selective ligand of OX1R in the low micromolar range (Ki 1.58 ± 0.2 μM) while in vitro functional assays, carried out by intracellular calcium imaging and mobilization assays, showed that CBD acts as an antagonist at this receptor. Finally, the putative binding mode of CBD has been inferred by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations and its selectivity toward the OX1R subtype rationalized at the molecular level. This study provides the first evidence that CBD acts as an OX1R antagonist, supporting its potential use in addictive disorders and/or body weight regulation.
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 13