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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Emil Bulatov
Definition: The aging of the world population leads to a constant increase of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Treatment of late-stage tumors has become a significant burden on the healthcare system globally. Adoptive cell immunotherapy is supposed to prolong life with cancer and ideally cure cancer after a single infusion of the cell product. Arguably, the most impressive clinical therapy in this field is based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells capable of curing up to 25–50% of previously incurable patients with B-cell malignancies. Diverse cell therapies are already efficiently used in clinics for cancer treatment (such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, transgenic αβ T-cells) and several novel promising cell therapies are in development (such as CAR M-cells, transgenic γδ T-cells, CAR NK-cells). Here, we summarize the recent literature data with the focus on T-cell receptor-based therapies and overview the most advanced systems for manufacturing of clinical grade cell products.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Suresh Mickymaray
Definition: The prevalence of fungal infections is growing at an alarming pace and the pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. Recurrence of these fungal diseases is often due to their evolutionary avoidance of antifungal resistance. The development of suitable novel antimicrobial agents for fungal diseases continues to be a major problem in the current clinical field. Hence, it is urgently necessary to develop surrogate agents that are more effective than conventional available drugs. Among the remarkable innovations from earlier investigations on natural-drugs, flavonoids are a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many valuable effects on humans. The identification of flavonoids with possible antifungal effects at small concentrations or in synergistic combinations could help to overcome this problem. A combination of flavonoids with available drugs is an excellent approach to reduce the side effects and toxicity.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Payal Patel
Definition: Gene therapy serves as a promising therapy in the pipeline for treatment of epidermolysis bullosa (EB). However, with great promise, the risk of autoimmunity must be considered. While EB is a group of inherited blistering disorders caused by mutations in various skin proteins, autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) have a similar clinical phenotype and are caused by autoantibodies targeting skin antigens. Often, AIBD and EB have the same protein targeted through antibody or mutation, respectively. Moreover, EB patients are also reported to carry anti-skin antibodies of questionable pathogenicity. It has been speculated that activation of autoimmunity is both a consequence and cause of further skin deterioration in EB due to a state of chronic inflammation.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Manuel Varela
Definition: Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. These antimicrobial resistance mechanisms include active antimicrobial efflux, reduced drug entry into cells of pathogens, enzymatic metabolism of antimicrobial agents to inactive products, biofilm formation, altered drug targets, and protection of antimicrobial targets. These microbial systems represent suitable focuses for investigation to establish the means for their circumvention and to reestablish therapeutic effectiveness.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Blessing Aderibigbe
Definition: Metastatic bone cancer occurs in every type of cancer but is prevalent in lung, breast, and prostate cancers. These metastases can cause extensive morbidity, including a range of skeletal-related events, often painful and linked with substantial hospital resource usage. The treatment used is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. However, anticancer drugs are still limited because of severe side effects, drug resistance, poor blood supply, and non-specific drug uptake, necessitating high toxic doses. Bisphosphonates are the dominant class of drugs used to inhibit metastatic bone cancer. It is also used to treat osteoporosis and other bone diseases. However, bisphosphonate also suffers from serious side effects. Thus, there is a serious need to develop bisphosphonate conjugates with promising therapeutic outcomes for treating metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis. This review article focuses on the biological outcomes of designed bisphosphonate-based conjugates for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Md Abdul Hannan
Definition: Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), a highly valued nutraceutical herb with a wide array of health benefits, has attracted growing interest from health-conscious individuals, the scientific community, and pharmaceutical industries. The pleiotropic pharmacological effects of black cumin, and its main bioactive component thymoquinone (TQ), have been manifested by their ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation, and to promote immunity, cell survival, and energy metabolism, which underlie diverse health benefits, including protection against metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive, hepatic, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and neurological disorders, cancer, and so on. Furthermore, black cumin acts as an antidote, mitigating various toxicities and drug-induced side effects.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Thi Tuong Vy Phan
Definition: Chitosan (CS) has been widely used as a surface coating for metal nanoparticles. CS can work as a reducing agent, a shape director, or a size-controllable agent in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The previous studies have shown that functionalizing the surface of metal nanoparticles by CS can offer many advantages, including improving physicochemical stability, a drug carrier, controlling drug release, promoting muco-adhesiveness and tissue penetration, encouraging cell interactions, and enhancing antimicrobial effects.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Faiyaz Shakeel
Definition: Nanoerythrosomes (NERs) are the carrier erythrocytes (C-ERs) which are recognized as modern day, novel, and smart drug delivery systems associated with increased bioavailability, improved pharmacokinetics, and low toxicity.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Anna Richter
Definition: Genetically altered stem or progenitor cells feature gross chromosomal abnormalities, inducing modified ability of self-renewal and abnormal hematopoiesis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) regulate cell cycle progression, transcription, DNA repair and are aberrantly expressed in hematopoietic malignancies. Incorporation of CDK inhibitors (CDKIs) into the existing therapeutic regimens therefore constitutes a promising strategy. However, the complex molecular heterogeneity and different clinical presentation is challenging for selecting the right target and defining the ideal combination to mediate long-term disease control. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that specific CDKIs have activity in selected patients, dependent on the existing rearrangements and mutations, potentially acting as biomarkers. Indeed, CDK6, expressed in hematopoietic cells, is a direct target of MLL fusion proteins often observed in acute leukemia and thus contributes to leukemogenesis. The high frequency of aberrancies in the retinoblastoma pathway additionally warrants application of CDKIs in hematopoietic neoplasms. In this review, we describe the preclinical and clinical advances recently made in the use of CDKIs. These include the FDA-approved CDK4/6 inhibitors, traditional and novel pan-CDKIs, as well as dual kinase inhibitors. We additionally provide an overview on molecular mechanisms of response vs. resistance and discuss open questions.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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