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Neurodegeneration refers to the progressive loss of neuron structure or function, which may eventually lead to cell death. Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and prion disease, are the results of neurodegenerative processes. Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuits in the brain, from molecules to systems. Since there is no known method to reverse the progressive degeneration of neurons, these diseases are considered incurable. Biomedical research has revealed many similarities between these diseases at the subcellular level, including atypical protein assembly (such as protein diseases) and induction of cell death. These similarities indicate that progress in the treatment of one neurodegenerative disease may also improve other diseases. This collection of entries aims to collect various medical research results related to neurodegeneration. We invite researchers to share their new results and ideas related to neurodegeneration.

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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: MUHANNA ALSHAIBANI
Definition: Actinobacteria are among the secondary metabolites producers and hold high pharmacological and commercial interest. It has great capability to produce secondary metabolites such as immunomodulators, antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, growth factors, anthelminthic enzymes and herbicides.describes the historical isolation of bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria from the first isolation by Selman Waksman.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Suresh Mickymaray
Definition: The prevalence of fungal infections is growing at an alarming pace and the pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. Recurrence of these fungal diseases is often due to their evolutionary avoidance of antifungal resistance. The development of suitable novel antimicrobial agents for fungal diseases continues to be a major problem in the current clinical field. Hence, it is urgently necessary to develop surrogate agents that are more effective than conventional available drugs. Among the remarkable innovations from earlier investigations on natural-drugs, flavonoids are a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many valuable effects on humans. The identification of flavonoids with possible antifungal effects at small concentrations or in synergistic combinations could help to overcome this problem. A combination of flavonoids with available drugs is an excellent approach to reduce the side effects and toxicity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Getha Krishnasamy
Definition: Fungi are a rich source of secondary metabolites with several pharmacological activities such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer to name a few. Due to the large number of diverse structured chemical compounds they produce, fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Muccoromycota have been intensively studied for isolation of bioactive compounds. Basidiomycetes-derived secondary metabolites are known as a promising source of antibacterial compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The continued emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major challenge to patient health as it leads to higher morbidity and mortality, higher hospital-stay duration and substantial economic burden in global healthcare sector. One of the key culprits for AMR crisis is Staphylococcus aureus causing community-acquired infections as the pathogen develops resistance towards multiple antibiotics. The recent emergence of community strains of S. aureus harbouring methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) genes associated with increased virulence is challenging. Despite the few significant developments in antibiotic research, successful MRSA therapeutic options are still needed to reduce the use of scanty and expensive second-line treatments. This paper provides an overview of findings from various studies on antibacterial secondary metabolites from basidiomycetes, with a special focus on antistaphylococcal activity.
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Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Antonella D'Anneo
Abstract: Today, an improved understanding of cancer cell response to cellular stress has become more necessary. Indeed, targeting the intracellular pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance triggering the tumor commitment to cell demise could represent an advantageous strategy to develop cancer-tailored therapies. Ethanolic extracts from Mangifera indica L. have been proved to possess anti-tumor properties in many cancer systems. However, although most effects have been demonstrated with fruit pulp extract, the underlying molecular mechanisms of mango peel are still unclear. This research was undertaken to explore the effects of mango peel extract (MPE) on colon cancer cell lines. Data obtained demonstrated that MPE can affect the cell viability of three colon cancer cell lines (HT29, Caco-2 and HCT116), inducing an imbalance of cellular redox responses. A consistent decline in thiol group content, which was accompanied by upregulation of MnSOD—a mitochondrial scavenger enzyme that modulates the cellular response against oxidative damage- was observed. Such an effect was the consequence of an early production of mitochondrial superoxide anions that appeared after just 30 min of exposure of colon cancer cells to MPE. The effect was accompanied by mitochondrial injury, consisting of the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in the level of proteins localized in the mitochondrial membrane (VDAC1, mitofilin, and some members of Bcl-2 family) —with the mitochondrial release of apoptogenic factors (cytochrome C and AIF). The analysis of the cytotoxic effects exerted by the different constituents of MPE (gallic acid, mangiferin, citric acid, quinic acid, pentagalloyl glucose, and methyl gallate) allowed us to identify those phytochemicals responsible for the observed anticancer effects, sustaining their future employment as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Manuel Varela
Definition: Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. These antimicrobial resistance mechanisms include active antimicrobial efflux, reduced drug entry into cells of pathogens, enzymatic metabolism of antimicrobial agents to inactive products, biofilm formation, altered drug targets, and protection of antimicrobial targets. These microbial systems represent suitable focuses for investigation to establish the means for their circumvention and to reestablish therapeutic effectiveness.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Blessing Aderibigbe
Definition: Metastatic bone cancer occurs in every type of cancer but is prevalent in lung, breast, and prostate cancers. These metastases can cause extensive morbidity, including a range of skeletal-related events, often painful and linked with substantial hospital resource usage. The treatment used is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. However, anticancer drugs are still limited because of severe side effects, drug resistance, poor blood supply, and non-specific drug uptake, necessitating high toxic doses. Bisphosphonates are the dominant class of drugs used to inhibit metastatic bone cancer. It is also used to treat osteoporosis and other bone diseases. However, bisphosphonate also suffers from serious side effects. Thus, there is a serious need to develop bisphosphonate conjugates with promising therapeutic outcomes for treating metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis. This review article focuses on the biological outcomes of designed bisphosphonate-based conjugates for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer and osteoporosis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Md Abdul Hannan
Definition: Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), a highly valued nutraceutical herb with a wide array of health benefits, has attracted growing interest from health-conscious individuals, the scientific community, and pharmaceutical industries. The pleiotropic pharmacological effects of black cumin, and its main bioactive component thymoquinone (TQ), have been manifested by their ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation, and to promote immunity, cell survival, and energy metabolism, which underlie diverse health benefits, including protection against metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive, hepatic, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and neurological disorders, cancer, and so on. Furthermore, black cumin acts as an antidote, mitigating various toxicities and drug-induced side effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Oct 2021
Definition: Drimia (synonym Urginea) plants are bulbous plants belonging to the family Asparagaceae (formerly the family Hyacinthaceae) and are distinctive, powerful medicinal plants. Just some species are indigenous to South Africa and have been traditionally utilized for centuries to cure various diseases and/or ailments. They have been recognized among the most famous and used medicinal plants in South Africa. Traditionally, the plants are used for various illnesses such as dropsy, respiratory disease, bone and joint complications, skin disorders, epilepsy and cancer. A number of studies have reported biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer activities. Their bulbs are a popular treatment for colds, measles, pneumonia, coughs, fever and headaches.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Yoon-Yen Yow
Definition: Despite the progressive advances, current standards of treatments for peripheral nerve injury do not guarantee complete recovery. Thus, alternative therapeutic interventions should be considered. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are widely explored for their therapeutic value, but their potential use in peripheral nerve regeneration is underappreciated. Various CAMs enhanced proliferation and migration of Schwann cells in vitro, primarily through activation of MAPK pathway and FGF-2 signaling, respectively. Animal studies demonstrated the ability of CAMs to promote peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery, which are partially associated with modulations of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-apoptotic signaling.
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