Browse by Subjects
Biopharmaceuticals
Submit
Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 01 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Emil Bulatov
Definition: The aging of the world population leads to a constant increase of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Treatment of late-stage tumors has become a significant burden on the healthcare system globally. Adoptive cell immunotherapy is supposed to prolong life with cancer and ideally cure cancer after a single infusion of the cell product. Arguably, the most impressive clinical therapy in this field is based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells capable of curing up to 25–50% of previously incurable patients with B-cell malignancies. Diverse cell therapies are already efficiently used in clinics for cancer treatment (such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, transgenic αβ T-cells) and several novel promising cell therapies are in development (such as CAR M-cells, transgenic γδ T-cells, CAR NK-cells). Here, we summarize the recent literature data with the focus on T-cell receptor-based therapies and overview the most advanced systems for manufacturing of clinical grade cell products.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Thi Tuong Vy Phan
Definition: Chitosan (CS) has been widely used as a surface coating for metal nanoparticles. CS can work as a reducing agent, a shape director, or a size-controllable agent in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The previous studies have shown that functionalizing the surface of metal nanoparticles by CS can offer many advantages, including improving physicochemical stability, a drug carrier, controlling drug release, promoting muco-adhesiveness and tissue penetration, encouraging cell interactions, and enhancing antimicrobial effects.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Faiyaz Shakeel
Definition: Nanoerythrosomes (NERs) are the carrier erythrocytes (C-ERs) which are recognized as modern day, novel, and smart drug delivery systems associated with increased bioavailability, improved pharmacokinetics, and low toxicity.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Kenneth K. Wu
Definition: Cytoguardin was identified in the conditioned medium of fibroblasts as a tryptophan metabolite, 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP). It is synthesized via two enzymatic steps: tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT).
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Luis H. Reyes
Definition: Gene therapy has been used as a potential approach to address the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases and inherited disorders. In this line, non-viral systems have been exploited as promising alternatives for delivering therapeutic transgenes and proteins. In this entry, we explored how biological barriers are effectively overcome by non-viral systems, usually nanoparticles, to reach an efficient delivery of cargoes.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 06 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Ana M. L. Seca
Definition: The Artemisia species, often known collectively as "wormwood" are herbs and shrubs, which could be perennial, biennial and annual plants, distributed on all continents except Antarctica, mainly on Northern Hemisphere, with only 25 species on the Southern Hemisphere, being the Asian the zone where higher species diversity is concentrated. The use of Artemisia species in traditional medicine is well-documented and demonstrates the great ethnopharmacological value of this genus. In addition to the traditional medicine applications, Artemisia species exhibit high food value since many of them are species used in culinary as a food, spices, condiments and beverages flavoring.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Submitted by: SWAPNIL SANMUKH
Definition: Endolysins are phage-encoded enzymes utilized by mature phage virions to hydrolyze the cell wall from within. There is significant evidence that proves the ability of endolysins to degrade the peptidoglycan externally without the assistance of phage. Thus, their incorporation in therapeutic strategies has opened new options for therapeutic application against bacterial infections in the human and veterinary sectors, as well as within the agricultural and biotechnology sectors. While endolysins show promising results within the laboratory, it is important to document their resistance, safety, and immunogenicity for in-vivo application.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Sunmin Park
Definition: Fermented soybean paste is an indigenous food for use in cooking in East and Southeast Asia. Korea developed and used its traditional fermented foods two thousand years ago. Chungkookjang has unique characteristics such as short-term fermentation (24–72 h) without salt, and fermentation mostly with Bacilli. Traditionally fermented chungkookjang (TFC) is whole cooked soybeans that are fermented predominantly by Bacillus species. However, Bacillus species are different in the environment according to the regions and seasons due to the specific bacteria. Bacillus species differently contribute to the bioactive components of chungkookjang, resulting in different functionalities.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 20 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Rossella Sartorius
Definition: The pharmaceutical use of bacteriophages as safe and inexpensive therapeutic tools is collecting renewed interest. The use of lytic phages to fight antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is pursued in academic and industrial projects and is the object of several clinical trials. On the other hand, filamentous bacteriophages used for the phage display technology can also have diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Filamentous bacteriophages are nature-made nanoparticles useful for their size, the capability to enter blood vessels, and the capacity of high-density antigen expression. In the last decades, filamentous bacteriophage ‘fd’ was employed as antigen delivery system, able to trigger all arms of the immune response, with particular emphasis on the ability of the MHC class I restricted antigenic determinants displayed on phages to induce strong and protective cytotoxic responses.Moreover, fd bacteriophages, engineered to target mouse dendritic cells (DCs), activate innate and adaptive responses without the need of exogenous adjuvants, and more recently was employed for the display of immunologically active lipids.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 4