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Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mariusz Dąbrowski
Definition: In the last decade, cancer became the leading cause of death in the population under 65 in the European Union. Diabetes is also considered as a factor increasing risk of cancer incidence and mortality. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with being overweight and obese, which also plays a role in malignancy. Among biological mechanisms linking diabetes and obesity with cancer hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, increased levels of growth factors, steroid and peptide hormones, oxidative stress and increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines are listed. Antidiabetic medications can modulate cancer risk through directly impacting metabolism of cancer cells as well as indirectly through impact on risk factors of malignancy. Some of them are considered beneficial (metformin and thiazolidinedions—with the exception of bladder cancer); on the other hand, excess of exogenous insulin may be potentially harmful, while other medications seem to have neutral impact on cancer risk. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) are increasingly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, their association with cancer risk is unclear.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Simone Patergnani
Definition: Calcium (Ca2+) is a major second messenger in cells and is essential for the fate and survival of all higher organisms. Different Ca2+ channels, pumps, or exchangers regulate variations in the duration and levels of intracellular Ca2+, which may be transient or sustained. These changes are then decoded by an elaborate toolkit of Ca2+-sensors, which translate Ca2+ signal to intracellular operational cell machinery, thereby regulating numerous Ca2+-dependent physiological processes. Alterations to Ca2+ homoeostasis and signaling are often deleterious and are associated with certain pathological states, including cancer. Altered Ca2+ transmission has been implicated in a variety of processes fundamental for the uncontrolled proliferation and invasiveness of tumor cells and other processes important for cancer progression, such as the development of resistance to cancer therapies.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Dipongkor Saha
Definition: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of primary malignant brain tumor with a devastatingly poor prognosis. The disease does not discriminate, affecting adults and children of both sexes, and has an average overall survival of 12–15 months, despite advances in diagnosis and rigorous treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection. In addition, most survivors will eventually experience tumor recurrence that only imparts survival of a few months. GBM is highly heterogenous, invasive, vascularized, and almost always inaccessible for treatment. Based on all these outstanding obstacles, there have been tremendous efforts to develop alternative treatment options that allow for more efficient targeting of the tumor including small molecule drugs and immunotherapies. A number of other strategies in development include therapies based on nanoparticles, light, extracellular vesicles, and micro-RNA, and vessel co-option. Advances in these potential approaches shed a promising outlook on the future of GBM treatment.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Eric Weaver
Abstract: Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ad) have shown promising results in the therapeutic treatment of cancer. Ad type 5 (Ad5) is the most extensively utilized Ad type. However, several limitations exist to using Ad5 as an oncolytic virus, including high levels of anti-Ad5 neutralizing antibodies in the population, binding of the Ad5 hexon to blood coagulation factor X leading to liver sequestration and toxicity, and reduced expression of the primary receptor CAR on many tumors. Here, we use in vitro methods to explore the oncolytic potential of four alternative Ad types (Ad26, 28, 45, and 48) belonging to the species D Ad subgroup and developed replication-competent species D Ads expressing the human sodium iodide symporter protein (hNIS) for combination radiovirotherapy. We evaluated the species D Ad vectors transduction, replication, cytotoxicity, and gene expression in six different cancer cell lines. Species D Ads showed the greatest transduction and cytotoxic killing in the SKBR3 breast cancer cells, followed by 293, A549, and HepG2 cells, however the cytotoxicity was less than the wild type Ad5 virus. In contrast, species D Ads showed limited transduction and cytotoxicity in the Hela and SKOV3 cancer cell lines. These species D Ad vectors also successfully expressed the hNIS gene during infection leading to increased iodide uptake in multiple cancer cell lines. These results, the low seroprevalence of anti-species D antibodies, and the lack of binding to blood coagulation FX, support further exploration of species D Ads as alternative oncolytic adenoviruses against multiple types of cancer.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Pouya Javadian
Definition: In contrast to the decline in incidence and mortality of most other cancers, these rates are rising for endometrial cancer. Black women with endometrial cancer have an earlier diagnosis, more aggressive histology, advanced stage, and worse outcomes compared with their White counterparts. Socioeconomic status, a higher incidence of aggressive histology, and comorbid conditions are known factors leading to racial disparity in patients with endometrial cancer; nevertheless, they do not account for the entire racial disparity, which emphasizes the roles of molecular, histopathological and genetic factors.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Andrea Nicolini
Definition: Exosomes are nano-vesicle-shaped particles secreted by various cells, including cancer cells. Many studies have focused on the bioactive molecules that they export as exosomal cargo. These molecules can function as biomarkers in diagnosis or play a relevant role in modulating the immune system and in promoting apoptosis, cancer development and progression.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Haslina Ahmad
Definition: Cancer treatment and therapy has made significant leaps and bounds in these past decades. However, there are still cases where surgical removal is impossible, metastases are challenging and chemotherapy and radiotherapy pose severe side effects. Therefore, the need to find more effective and specific treatments still exists. One of the ways is through the utilization of drug delivery agents (DDA) based on nanomaterials. In 2001, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were first used as DDA and have gained considerable attention in this field. The popularity of MSNs is due to their unique properties such as tunable particle and pore size, high surface area and pore volume, easy functionalization and surface modification, high stability and their capability to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advancement of MSNs as DDA for cancer treatment. We focus on the fabrication of MSNs, the challenges in DDA development and how MSNs address the problems through development of smart DDA using MSNs. Besides that, MSNs have also been applied as a multifunctional DDA where they can serve in both diagnostic and treatment of cancer. Overall, we argue MSNs provide a bright future for both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Rong Wang
Definition: Oral cancer is a malignant condition on the lips or in the oral cavity including the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, parotid, salivary glands, and throat. More than 90% of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a modern diagnostic tool with great potential to provide rapid, objective and accurate early diagnosis of oral cancer, as well as accurate OSCC grading for better cancer management.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gregorio Sanchez
Definition: ozone therapy can induce an adaptive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response, which could be potentially useful in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Beate Heissig
Definition: Fibrinolytic factors like plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) dissolve clots. Though mere extracellular-matrix-degrading enzymes, fibrinolytic factors interfere with many processes during primary cancer growth and metastasis contributing to the hallmarks of cancer. Their many receptors give them access to cellular functions that tumor cells have widely exploited to promote tumor cell survival, growth, and metastatic abilities. Fibrinolytic factors give cancer cells tools to ensure their own survival by interfering with the signaling pathways involved in senescence, anoikis, and autophagy. Dependent on the cell type, plasminogen was shown to either enhance or suppress cancer cell survival via autophagy. The Kringle 5 of plasminogen after engagement with the glucose-regulated protein 78 induces autophagy in endothelial cells.Plasmin drives cellular extracellular matrix loss that induces programmed cell death or anoikis. Tumor cells by upregulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppress plasmin production. Now, they can escape anoikis and metastasize.The preparation of the premetastatic niche is prepared by exosomes, small membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Exosomes carry fibrinolytic factors and thereby might be important for ECM preparation during the metastatic process. Finally, fibrinolytic factors and their receptors including uPAR and LRP1 are upregulated in cancer cells after myelosuppressive treatment and contribute to drug resistance. Targeting receptors of fibrinolytic factors including uPAR and LRP1 can be a strategy to overcome drug resistance.
Entry Collection : Autophagy and Cancer
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