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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Berardino Vaira
Definition: H. pylori is a “fastidious” microorganism; culture methods are time-consuming and technically challenging. The advent of molecular biology techniques has enabled the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in H. pylori.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: The interplay between drugs and microbiota is critical for successful treatment. An accumulating amount of evidence has identified the significant impact of intestinal microbiota composition on cancer treatment response, particularly immunotherapy. The possible molecular pathways of the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the microbiome can be used to reverse immunotherapy tolerance in cancer by using various kinds of interventions on the intestinal bacteria. This paper aimed to review the data available on how the antibiotic-related changes in human microbiota during colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment can affect and determine ICI treatment outcomes. We also covered the data that support the potential intimate mechanisms of both local and systemic immune responses induced by changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, further better-powered studies are needed to thoroughly assess the clinical significance of antibiotic-induced alteration of the gut microbiota and its impact on CRC treatment by direct observations of patients receiving antibiotic treatment.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Tuan Tran
Definition: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), cardiac dysfunction in end-stage liver disease in the absence of prior heart disease, is an important clinical entity that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. The original definition for CCM, established in 2005 at the World Congress of Gastroenterology (WCG), was based upon known echocardiographic parameters to identify subclinical cardiac dysfunction in the absence of overt structural abnormalities. Subsequent advances in cardiovascular imaging and in particular myocardial deformation imaging have rendered the WCG criteria outdated. A number of investigations have explored other factors relevant to CCM, including serum markers, electrocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. CCM characteristics include a hyperdynamic circulatory state, impaired contractility, altered diastolic relaxation, and electrophysiological abnormalities, particularly QT interval prolongation. It is now known that cardiac dysfunction worsens with the progression of cirrhosis. Treatment for CCM has traditionally been limited to supportive efforts, but new pharmacological studies appear promising. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in CCM can be improved by targeted heart rate reduction. Ivabradine combined with carvedilol improves left ventricular diastolic dysfunction through targeted heart rate reduction, and this regimen can improve survival in patients with cirrhosis. Orthotopic liver transplantation also appears to improve CCM.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Benoit Guery
Definition: Clostridioides difficile is an increasingly common pathogen both within and outside the hospital and is responsible for a large clinical spectrum from asymptomatic carriage to complicated infection associated with a high mortality. While diagnostic methods have considerably progressed over the years, the optimal diagnostic algorithm is still debated and there is no single diagnostic test that can be used as a standalone test. More importantly, the heterogeneity in diagnostic practices between centers along with the lack of robust surveillance systems in all countries and an important degree of underdiagnosis due to lack of clinical suspicion in the community, hinder a more accurate evaluation of the burden of disease. Our improved understanding of the physiopathology of CDI has allowed some significant progress in the treatment of CDI, including a broader use of fidaxomicine, the use of fecal microbiota transplantation for multiples recurrences and newer approaches including antibodies, vaccines and new molecules, already developed or in the pipeline.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Duaa Elhag
Definition: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an auto-immune disorder characterized by a complex interaction between the host immune system and various environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified different T1D risk and protection alleles, however, little is known about the environmental factors that can be linked to these alleles. Recent evidence indicated that, among those environmental factors, dysbiosis (imbalance) in the gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of T1D, affecting the integrity of the gut and leading to systemic inflammation and auto-destruction of the pancreatic β cells.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Young Park
Definition: Helminthiasis is an expensive management problem in sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all anthelmintic chemical products which are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural tannin containing forages such as Sericea Lespedeza is highly promising. Helminthiasis is the invasion of internal parasites into the GI tract of domestic animals, even in humans, causing serious deadly consequences. Sheep and goats are more seriously afflicted than other farm animals. Helminthiasis results in high mortality rate, and poor growth rates, low reproductive performances and low quality products produced from infected animals, which increase high production costs. Anthelmintic drug has been used as the most common control method against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection. Overuse and misuse of these drugs caused significant GIN resistance against the drugs, especially in sheep and goat production.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a blistering dermatosis, which shares common immunologic features with celiac disease (CD).
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Leigh O'Brien
Definition: Chronic diarrhoea affects up to 14% of adults, it impacts on quality of life and its cause can be variable. Patients with chronic diarrhoea are presented with a plethora of dietary recommendations, often sought from the internet or provided by those who are untrained or inexperienced. Once a diagnosis is made, or serious diagnoses are excluded, dietitians play a key role in the management of chronic diarrhoea. The dietitian’s role varies depending on the underlying cause of the diarrhoea, with a wide range of dietary therapies available. Dietitians also have an important role in educating patients about the perils and pitfalls of dietary therapy.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Heike Allgayer
Definition: The role and function of bacteriophages (phages) has been underestimated so far. Natural compounds such as essential oils and tea have been used successfully in naturopathy and folk medicine for hundreds of years. Current research is unveiling the molecular role of their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The current interdisciplinary review summarizes current knowledge on dietary compounds as to their capacity to modulate the activity of phages, thus potentially contributing to (the modulation of) several gastrointestinal diseases, such as (chronic) inflammation, and even cancer.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Masakatsu Tsurusaki
Definition: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an imaging technique based on data acquisition at two different energy settings. Recent advances in CT have allowed data acquisitions and simultaneous analyses of X-rays at two energy levels, and have resulted in novel developments in the field of abdominal imaging. The use of low and high X-ray tube voltages in DECT provide fused images that improve the detection of liver tumors owing to the higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the tumor compared with the liver. The use of contrast agents in CT scanning improves image quality by enhancing the CNR and signal-to-noise ratio while reducing beam-hardening artifacts. DECT can improve detection and characterization of hepatic abnormalities, including mass lesions. The technique can also be used for the diagnosis of steatosis and iron overload.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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