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Gastrointestinal Disease

Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, the reduction of beneficial bacteria reduces the gastrointestinal immunity. Once the drug is stopped, it is easy to re-infect. There are many reasons for stomach problems, including genetics, environment, diet, drugs, bacterial infections, etc., as well as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This collection of entries aims to collect various items related to the topic of gastrointestinal diseases, such as clinical care, case cases, disease research, etc., to help people increase their knowledge and understanding of this common disease

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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Irene Gullo
Definition: The tumor immune microenvironment exerts a pivotal influence in tumor initiation and progression.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: The interplay between drugs and microbiota is critical for successful treatment. An accumulating amount of evidence has identified the significant impact of intestinal microbiota composition on cancer treatment response, particularly immunotherapy. The possible molecular pathways of the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the microbiome can be used to reverse immunotherapy tolerance in cancer by using various kinds of interventions on the intestinal bacteria. This paper aimed to review the data available on how the antibiotic-related changes in human microbiota during colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment can affect and determine ICI treatment outcomes. We also covered the data that support the potential intimate mechanisms of both local and systemic immune responses induced by changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, further better-powered studies are needed to thoroughly assess the clinical significance of antibiotic-induced alteration of the gut microbiota and its impact on CRC treatment by direct observations of patients receiving antibiotic treatment.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Videos
Updated time: 17 Sep 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Evette Hillman
Definition: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a widespread gastrointestinal disease that presents as chronic watery diarrhoea as well as bloating and abdominal pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome and is estimated to affect 1% of the United Kingdom population alone. BAD is associated with excessive bile acid synthesis secondary to a gastrointestinal or idiopathic disorder (also known as primary BAD). Current treatment includes diet changes and bile acid sequestrant medication.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Mark Gray
Definition: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is a commonly performed abdominal procedure used in the treatment of colorectal cancers. Unfortunately, ~7% of all patients will develop an anastomotic leak (AL) following surgery. This situation occurs when the anastomotic site fails to heal correctly leading to contamination of the abdominal cavity with intestinal contents and the development of septic peritonitis. Patients often require revision surgery and intensive care, both of which are associated with significantly longer hospitalisation stays and increased economic costs. Patients also have higher morbidity and mortality rates and poorer oncological prognosis. Predicting which patients are at high-risk of developing an AL or diagnosing an AL early in the post-operative period is essential to optimise patient care and improve outcome. Unfortunately, predicting and diagnosing an AL following surgery for colorectal cancers is extremely difficult. Patients can present with a range of clinical symptoms and have non-specific findings on routine bloodwork. Diagnosis currently relies heavily on abdominal imaging with CT scans and contrast studies. Unfortunately, these techniques suffer from variable sensitivity and specificity and may delay diagnosis. To overcome these issues, pre-clinical and clinical research is continuing to identify diagnostic and predictive AL biomarkers.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Marcin Sochal
Definition: Chemerin belongs to the adipokines—proteins secreted by white adipose tissue. It plays an important role in angiogenesis and metabolism and its levels correlate with inflammation severity in many clinical states.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Hermie Harmsen
Definition: Gastrointestinal mucositis (GI-M) is a frequently observed side effect of chemotherapy in patients with cancer that affects the gastrointestinal microenvironment and potentially drug absorption.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Young Park
Definition: Helminthiasis is an expensive management problem in sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all anthelmintic chemical products which are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural tannin containing forages such as Sericea Lespedeza is highly promising. Helminthiasis is the invasion of internal parasites into the GI tract of domestic animals, even in humans, causing serious deadly consequences. Sheep and goats are more seriously afflicted than other farm animals. Helminthiasis results in high mortality rate, and poor growth rates, low reproductive performances and low quality products produced from infected animals, which increase high production costs. Anthelmintic drug has been used as the most common control method against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection. Overuse and misuse of these drugs caused significant GIN resistance against the drugs, especially in sheep and goat production.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Bing Hu
Definition: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately 50% of the world population. Its infection is associated with gastropathies, extra-gastric digestive diseases, and diseases of other systems. There is a canonical process from acute-on-chronic inflammation, chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia, eventually to gastric cancer (GC). H. pylori eradication abolishes the inflammatory response and early treatment prevents the progression to preneoplastic lesions.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Roberta Masella
Definition: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the major threatening diseases worldwide, being the third most common cancer, and a leading cause of death, with a global incidence expected to increase in the coming years. Enhanced adiposity, particularly visceral fat, is a major risk factor for the development of several tumours, including CRC, and represents an important indicator of incidence, survival, prognosis, recurrence rates, and response to therapy. The obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to be a key determinant in CRC development, with the adipocytes and the adipose tissue (AT) playing a significant role in the integration of diet-related endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory signals.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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