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Nitric Oxide: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Applications

Nitric oxide, a gaseous free radical, is one of the ten smallest molecules found in nature. NO regulates vascular relaxation, controls inflammation, and suppresses expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in mast cells, macrophages, and vascular smooth muscles. NO regulates blood flow and modulates platelet and leukocyte activation, adhesion, and aggregation. This Entry Collection aims to help advance our understanding of the role that NO plays in physiology and pharmacology, which may lead to applications against various diseases.

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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Natalia Shnayder
Definition: Arterial hypertension (AH) is a prevalent condition worldwide and is the key risk factor for non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular complications. Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headache and is considered a common everyday headache.
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
In this entry, Dr. Sevda Gheibi shares her presentation of "Hydrogen sulfide potentiates the favorable metabolic profile of inorganic nitrite in type 2 diabetes".
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
In this entry, Professor Dipak Panigrahy shares his presentation of "Inflammation Resolution in Cancer".
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Kim In Su
Definition: Lindera, a core genus containing more than 100 species, is a member of the Litseeae tribe under the Lauraceae family. Plants of the Lindera genus are widely distributed all over the world, particularly in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of Asia and midwestern America. Plants from the Lindera genus are considered a rich source of essential oils and are often used in the production of aromatic cosmetic products such as soap and lubricants for their elegant fragrance. Most importantly, throughout history, many Lindera plants have been used in traditional medicine for their healing and curing capabilities for several health-related implications, such as pain, cold, urinary tract disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, gastric ulcer, abdominal pain, cholera, and beriberi.
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
In this entry, Dr. Ashgar Ghasemi shares the presentation of "Nitrate(NO3) for management of type 2 diabetes: Translation from animals to humans".
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Khosrow Kashfi
Definition: Beneficial metabolic effects of inorganic nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been documented in animal experiments; however, this is not the case for humans. Although it has remained an open question, the redox environment affecting the conversion of NO3− to NO2− and then to NO is suggested as a potential reason for this lost-in-translation. Ascorbic acid (AA) has a critical role in the gastric conversion of NO2− to NO following ingestion of NO3−. In contrast to AA-synthesizing species like rats, the lack of ability to synthesize AA and a lower AA body pool and plasma concentrations may partly explain why humans with T2DM do not benefit from NO3−/NO2− supplementation. Rats also have higher AA concentrations in their stomach tissue and gastric juice that can significantly potentiate gastric NO2−-to-NO conversion.
Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Vania Paschoalin
Definition: Beetroot is a remarkable vegetable, as its rich nitrate and bioactive compound contents ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic functions by boosting nitric oxide synthesis and regulating gene expressions or modulating proteins and enzyme activities involved in these cellular processes. Dietary nitrate provides a physiological substrate for nitric oxide production, which promotes vasodilatation, increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure.
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous free radical, is one of the ten smallest molecules found in nature. Although toxic, it is recognized to be a gasotransmitter that plays multiple roles in normal physiology. NO regulates vascular relaxation, controls inflammation, and suppresses expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in mast cells, macrophages, vascular smooth muscles, affects metabolism, insulin resistance, and has a role in type-2 diabetes. In this video, Dr. Sharon Glynn shares her presentation of "Influence of nitric oxide on prostate cancer initiation and progression".
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
In this entry, Dr. Probal Banerjee shares his presentation of "Exploiting the diverse roles of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isozymes".
Videos
Updated time: 14 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
In this entry, Dr. Bindu D. Paul shares her presentation of "Role of nitrosylation and sulfhydration in aging and neurodegenration".
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