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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Geert Driessen
Definition: As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, many students have developed substantial educational delays, both cognitively and social-emotionally. To counter such negative effects of the school closures, several policies and support strategies on attainment and social-emotional well-being have been proposed and implemented. In the Netherlands, the focus is on using evidence-based interventions to boost educational achievement. The question is, however, how evidence-based the interventions really are.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Allison B Reiss
Definition: COVID-19 is an RNA virus that has caused a pandemic leading to death and disability on a global scale. The virus gains entry into the cell using host protein angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. The viral envelope fuses with the cell membrane through the endosomal pathway, allowing the viral particle to enter the host cell, where it can release its RNA and replicate. After an initial asymptomatic period, common presenting signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection are non-specific and may include those of a common cold or influenza such as fever, dry cough, myalgia, headache and fatigue. Sore throat and nasal congestion may also be noted. Gastrointestinal and other symptoms may occur and loss of sense of taste and smell is a frequent early symptom that may distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. The virus is highly contagious and there is no cure. In order to avoid transmission, social distancing, mask wearing and reduced person-to-person interaction are key. Definitive diagnosis is based on reverse-transcription PCR of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from mild to moderate or severe. In order to minimize spread of COVID-19 to both patients and healthcare workers, virtual evaluation of suspected cases is being widely implemented and has necessitated an adjustment to the new medium by all participants. The use of virtual technology for real-time telemedicine assessment for COVID-19 provisional diagnosis and categorization of severity allows patients to receive an appropriate level of care without endangering others. We created a protocol for implementing a remote visit using a computer or mobile device. This enables patient assessement without direct contact to determine the need to visit a healthcare facility or alternatively, to be managed at home. If stable, the patient can isolate and be monitored so that should their condition worsen, they can be directed to in-person care at a hospital. Vigilance in checking on the patient's condition is crucial because those who develop severe COVID-19 may not experience dyspnea and other signs of rapid deterioration until about 5-8 days after symptom onset.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Ahmed Sherif Attia
Definition: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen, and over the last three decades it has proven to be particularly difficult to treat by healthcare services. It is now regarded as a formidable infectious agent with a genetic setup for prompt development of resistance to most of the available antimicrobial agents. we provide a comprehensive updated overview of the available data about A. baumannii, the multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype spread, carbapenem-resistance, and the associated genetic resistance determinants in low-income countries (LIICs) since the beginning of the 21st century.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Hing-wah Chau
Definition: Age-friendly built environments have been promoted by the World Health Organisation (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) under the Global Age-friendly Cities (AFC) movement in which three domains are related to the built environment. These are: housing, transportation, outdoor spaces and public buildings. The aim is to foster active ageing by optimising opportunities for older adults to maximise their independent living ability and participate in their communities to enhance their quality of life and wellbeing. An age-friendly built environment is inclusive, accessible, respects individual needs and addresses the wide range of capacities across the course of life. Age-friendly housing promotes ageing in familiar surroundings and maintains social connections at the neighbourhood and community levels. Both age-friendly housing and buildings provide barrier-free provisions to minimise the needs for subsequent adaptations. Age-friendly public and outdoor spaces encourage older adults to spend time outside and engage with others against isolation and loneliness. Age-friendly public transport enables older adults to get around and enhances their mobility. For achieving an age-friendly living environment, a holistic approach is required to enable independent living, inclusion and active participation of older adults in society. The eight domains of the AFC movement are not mutually exclusive but overlap and support with one another.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Adnan Anwar
Definition: This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Gabriele Donzelli
Definition: Air pollution exposure is one of the greatest risks to health worldwide. It is estimated to be responsible for about 4.2 million deaths around the world every year owing to many serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, and lung cancer. The WHO guideline limits are exceeded in several areas around the world, and it is estimated that about 90% of the world’s population is exposed to high air pollution levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to implement severe mobility restriction measures to limit the spread of the virus. This represented a unique opportunity to study the impact of mobility on urban air quality. Several studies which have investigated the relations between the quality of the air and such containment measures have shown the significant reduction of the main pollutants in the urban environment so to encourage the adoption of new approaches for the improvement of the quality of air in the cities. The aims of this entry are both a brief analysis and a discussion of the results presented in several papers to understand the relationships between COVID-19 containment measures and air quality in urban areas.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Zubair Akhtar
Definition: The general population has been excessively using antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the use of antibiotics for any reported illnesses in the preceding four weeks and knowledge of antibiotics among the general population in the community were assessed for possible interventions. A mobile phone survey among a general population across eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh was conducted during January–March 2021.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Rodica-Mariana Ion
Definition: Photodynamic inactivation is known as a new antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). It is based on the administration of a photosensitizer located in the bacterial/viral cell followed by exposure to light radiations (with a proper wavelength corresponding with the maximum value of absorption of the photosensitizer) that generate singlet oxygen or reactive oxygen species, which lead to the death of different microorganisms. This review will present an overview beyond the state-of-the-art of the photosensitizer types (based on tetra-p-sulphonated-phenyl porphyrin—TSPP, which is able to form cationic and J-aggregates forms at different pH values ((1–4) and concentrations around 10−5 M) and their applications of PDT for viruses, especially.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Carla Pires
Definition: COVID-2019 pandemic lead to a raised interest on the development of new treatments through Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI is a suitable tool to quickly analyze large amounts of data or to estimate drug repurposing against COVID-2019.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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