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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Allison B Reiss
Definition: COVID-19 is an RNA virus that has caused a pandemic leading to death and disability on a global scale. The virus gains entry into the cell using host protein angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. The viral envelope fuses with the cell membrane through the endosomal pathway, allowing the viral particle to enter the host cell, where it can release its RNA and replicate. After an initial asymptomatic period, common presenting signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection are non-specific and may include those of a common cold or influenza such as fever, dry cough, myalgia, headache and fatigue. Sore throat and nasal congestion may also be noted. Gastrointestinal and other symptoms may occur and loss of sense of taste and smell is a frequent early symptom that may distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. The virus is highly contagious and there is no cure. In order to avoid transmission, social distancing, mask wearing and reduced person-to-person interaction are key. Definitive diagnosis is based on reverse-transcription PCR of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from mild to moderate or severe. In order to minimize spread of COVID-19 to both patients and healthcare workers, virtual evaluation of suspected cases is being widely implemented and has necessitated an adjustment to the new medium by all participants. The use of virtual technology for real-time telemedicine assessment for COVID-19 provisional diagnosis and categorization of severity allows patients to receive an appropriate level of care without endangering others. We created a protocol for implementing a remote visit using a computer or mobile device. This enables patient assessement without direct contact to determine the need to visit a healthcare facility or alternatively, to be managed at home. If stable, the patient can isolate and be monitored so that should their condition worsen, they can be directed to in-person care at a hospital. Vigilance in checking on the patient's condition is crucial because those who develop severe COVID-19 may not experience dyspnea and other signs of rapid deterioration until about 5-8 days after symptom onset.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Adnan Anwar
Definition: This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Rodica-Mariana Ion
Definition: Photodynamic inactivation is known as a new antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). It is based on the administration of a photosensitizer located in the bacterial/viral cell followed by exposure to light radiations (with a proper wavelength corresponding with the maximum value of absorption of the photosensitizer) that generate singlet oxygen or reactive oxygen species, which lead to the death of different microorganisms. This review will present an overview beyond the state-of-the-art of the photosensitizer types (based on tetra-p-sulphonated-phenyl porphyrin—TSPP, which is able to form cationic and J-aggregates forms at different pH values ((1–4) and concentrations around 10−5 M) and their applications of PDT for viruses, especially.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Madan Mohan Gupta
Definition: The emergence and global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted the traditional mechanisms of education throughout the world. Institutions of learning were caught unprepared and this jeopardised the face-to-face method of curriculum delivery and assessment. Teaching institutions have shifted to an asynchronous mode whilst attempting to preserve the principles of integrity, equity, inclusiveness, fairness, ethics, and safety. A framework of assessment that enables educators to utilise appropriate methods in measuring a student’s progress is crucial for the success of teaching and learning, especially in health education that demands high standards and comprises consistent scientific content.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ricardo Lleonart
Definition: In the 21st century, three highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses have emerged, with an alarming rate of human morbidity and case fatality. Genomic information has been widely used to understand the pathogenesis, animal origin and mode of transmission of coronaviruses in the aftermath of the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Furthermore, genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis have had an unprecedented relevance in the battle against the 2019–2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the newest and most devastating outbreak caused by a coronavirus in the history of mankind. Here, we briefly review the application of genomics and bioinformatics in the molecular epidemiology of pathogenic betacoronaviruses.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Abdullah Almuhaideb
Definition: The COVID-19 epidemic has caused a large number of human losses and havoc in the economic, social, societal, and health systems around the world. Controlling such epidemic requires understanding its characteristics and behavior, which can be identified by collecting and analyzing the related big data. Big data analytics tools play a vital role in building knowledge required in making decisions and precautionary measures. However, due to the vast amount of data available on COVID-19 from various sources, there is a need to review the roles of big data analysis in controlling the spread of COVID-19, presenting the main challenges and directions of COVID-19 data analysis, as well as providing a framework on the related existing applications and studies to facilitate future research on COVID-19 analysis.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ahlem Teniou
Definition: To date, six human coronaviruses have been identified: α-coronaviruses (HCoVs-NL63, HCoVs-229E), β-coronaviruses (HCoVs-OC43, HCoVs-HKU1), severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV). After the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic, the world is living a new threat to human health since December 2019—the SARS-CoV-2 or the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the novel coronavirus is associated with an atypical pneumonia that has led to 90,176,569 infections and 1,936,617 deaths worldwide, as of 10 January 2021. Structurally, SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped RNA(Ribonucleic acid) virus comprising a spike protein (S), a hemagglutinin-esterase dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E), and a nucleocapsid protein (N). It has been demonstrated that the mechanism of the viral infection requires angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding to the protein S with high affinity. Highly expressed in the endothelial cells of the cardiovascular system and kidneys, this human receptor is used by the virus as an entry to invade target cells. Currently, immunoassays are the most popular diagnostic tools available in the market and used in medical structures. Basically, these methods use antibodies as bioreceptors targeting capsid proteins or whole viruses. In serological testing, capsid proteins are used as viral antigens to bind the immunoglobulins generated by the patient against the pathogen. Antibodies are usually obtained from animal immunization with N, S, or E protein or from the blood samples of patients who are infected [14]. In addition to the commercialized ELISA kits and rapid tests, several research reports have described novel immunoassays and immunosensors for coronavirus detection. We discuss in this part the principle of these methods as well as the most important results.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Nader Rahimi
Definition: COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a serious threat to global public health with overwhelming worldwide socio-economic disruption. SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent of COVID-19, uses its surface glycoprotein Spike (S) for host cell attachment and entry. The emerging picture of pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates that S protein, in addition, to ACE2, interacts with the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of C-type lectin receptors, CD209L and CD209. Recognition of CD209L and CD209 which are widely expressed in SARS-CoV-2 target organs can facilitate entry and transmission leading to dysregulation of the host immune response and other major organs including, cardiovascular system. Establishing a comprehensive map of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with CD209 family proteins, and their roles in transmission and pathogenesis can provide new insights into host-pathogen interaction with implications in therapies and vaccine development.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Apr 2021
Submitted by: ANINDITA DAS
Definition: An infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is accompanied with elevated risk and adverse outcome among infected patients, even sudden death due to significant multiple organ dysfunction, including dire cardiovascular complications. Myocardial impairment due to invasion of SARS-CoV-2 virus via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor to cardiovascular cells/tissue leads to endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, de-stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, stent thrombosis and cardiac stress, caused by diminished oxygen supply and cardiac muscle damage and myocardial infarction. A number of promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical trials to avoid a massive surge of COVID-19 patients with prevalence of adverse cardiac events.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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