Topic Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria against Mycotoxins
Mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, patulin, zearalenone, fumonisins, trichothecenes) are a large group of chemically diverse, non-protein, low-molecular secondary metabolites produced by molds. They constitute a global threat to human food and health. The generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status and long history as essential ingredients of fermented foods and probiotics make Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) a major biological tool against various food-related toxins. Numerous have shown studies LAB to be effective against all major mycotoxins.
  • 32
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Diagnostics of HNSCC Patients
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are very frequent worldwide, and smoking and chronic alcohol use are recognized as the main risk factors. For oropharyngeal cancers, HPV 16 infection is known to be a risk factor as well. By employing next-generation sequencing, both HPV-positive and negative HNSCC patients were detected as positive for PI3K mutation, which was considered an optimal molecular target. The treatment of HNSCC includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy alone or combined. In some cases, resistance to therapy with recurrences and metastasis and/or side effects appear. This underlines the need for a new direction of research for targeted cancer therapy.
  • 15
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Sponge City Practices in China
In recent years, China has been committed to strengthening environmental governance and trying to build a sustainable society in which humans and nature develop in harmony. As a new urban construction concept, sponge city uses natural and ecological methods to retain rainwater, alleviate flooding problems, reduce the damage to the water environment, and gradually restore the hydrological balance of the construction area.
  • 7
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Chinese Wine Industry
After more than 40 years of development, China’s wine regulatory system has been constantly improved, from half-base wine standards to pure-juice fermented wine standards, and then to the establishment of a relatively complete and mature industry-standard system with product and manufacturing standards as the core and other relevant industry standards as accessories.
  • 5
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Zebrafish as a Model for Cancer Treatments
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate model species traditionally used for studying developmental biology and vertebrate genetics, and more recently, to model human diseases such as cancer. The role of zebrafish as a platform for anticancer therapy studies has been highly evidenced, allowing researchers not only to perform drug screenings but also to evaluate novel therapies such as immunotherapies and nanotherapies.
  • 25
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Natural Fiber Composites
Recent advancements in natural fiber composites have minimized the usage of man-made fibers, especially in the field of structural applications such as aircraft stiffeners and rotor blades. However, large variations in the strength and modulus of natural fiber degrade the properties of the composites and lower the safety level of the structures under dynamic load. Without compromising the safety of the composite structure, it is significant to enrich the strength and modulus of natural fiber reinforcement for real-time applications.
  • 29
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Basic Principles of COF-Based Sensing
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous organic polymers with polygonal porosity and highly ordered structures. The most prominent feature of the COFs is their excellent crystallinity and highly ordered modifiable one-dimensional pores. Since the first report of them in 2005, COFs with various structures were successfully synthesized and their applications in a wide range of fields including gas storage, pollution removal, catalysis, and optoelectronics explored. In the meantime, COFs also exhibited good performance in chemical and biological sensing, because their highly ordered modifiable pores allowed the selective adsorption of the analytes, and the interaction between the analytes and the COFs’ skeletons may lead to a detectable change in the optical or electrical properties of the COFs.
  • 17
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Nafion-Based Membrane
Nafion, a perfluorosulfonic acid proton exchange membrane (PEM), has been widely used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) to serve as a proton carrier, methanol barrier, and separator for the anode and cathode. A significant drawback of Nafion in DMFC applications is the high anode-to-cathode methanol fuel permeability that results in over 40% fuel waste.
  • 23
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Panel Products Made of Oil Palm Trunk
Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia. A lot of products, including food and other edible products, oleo-chemicals, cosmetics, personal and household care, pharmaceutical products, and biodiesels are derived from palm oil, thus making them one of the most economically important plants.
  • 20
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Rhizosphere
The rhizosphere serves as a hotspot for diverse microbial activity. It is an intricate ecosystem comprising nutrient-rich soil that surrounds the plant roots, which provides a pool for plant–microbe communication. The term “Rhizomicrobiome” is defined as a microbial community that is present in the rhizosphere. A variety of microorganisms reside within the rhizosphere, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protists, and invertebrates. Most of the microbiome studies within the context of rhizosphere signaling have been focused on the bacteria and fungi that make up the major portion of the rhizosphere microbiome.
  • 16
  • 17 May 2022
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