Topic Review Video
Airborne Chemical Exposure and Ocular Surface Irritation
In our recent paper "An Assessment of the Ocular Toxicity of Two Major Sources of Environmental Exposure" we discuss the impact on the eye of specific chemicals released from burn pits and from the East Palestine, Ohio train derailment. This entry discusses the importance of investigating the nature and consequences of these exposures in hopes of raising awareness of an underrecognized health issue.
  • 90
  • 19 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Transforming Aerospace: The Advantages of Automation
The aerospace industry is one of the most complex and demanding sectors, requiring precision, reliability, and efficiency. Automation has emerged as a game-changer, transforming how aerospace components are manufactured, assembled, and maintained. This article explores the advantages of automation in the aerospace industry and how it is revolutionizing the sector.
  • 15
  • 19 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Visualizing Collagen Tissue Microarchitecture Using Contrast-Enhanced MicroCT
Micro-computed tomography (microCT) is a common tool for the visualization of the internal composition of organic tissues. Collagen comprises approximately 25–35% of the whole-body protein content in mammals, and the structure and arrangement of collagen fibers contribute significantly to the integrity of tissues. Collagen type I is also frequently used as a key structural component in tissue-engineered and bioprinted tissues. However, the imaging of collagenous tissues is limited by their inherently low X-ray attenuation, which makes them indistinguishable from most other soft tissues. An imaging contrast agent that selectively alters X-ray attenuation is thus essential to properly visualize collagenous tissue using a standard X-ray tube microCT scanner.  The entry provides basic understanding of the physical and chemical aspects of contrast agents that are specific for collagen and some of the key biological factors in selecting these agents for microCT.
  • 34
  • 18 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Sustainable Surimi: Demersal Fish Stock Assessment Insights
Demersal fish stock assessment is crucial for the surimi industry's sustainability, offering insights into population dynamics and preventing overexploitation. Methods like the Length-based Spawning Potential Ratio (LBSPR) provide valuable data on fish reproductive potential, aiding sustainable fisheries management. Overcoming challenges in data collection and promoting interdisciplinary research are key to effective conservation strategies, ensuring long-term viability for both the environment and the economy.
  • 20
  • 18 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Humic Substances
Humic substances are a very important part of our soil.  The topic is description of the structure of humic substances using NMR.  The NMR part is divided into two parts, liquid and solid state NMR.  The assignment of NMR spectra are discussed and the structural elements that can be deduced from the spectral information.  Principal Component Analysis is used as a tool to categorize the information.  Structural models are discussed.
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  • 16 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Essential Steps for Emergency Roof Repair
This article provides a comprehensive guide to handling emergency roof repairs after a storm in Denver. It covers essential steps such as assessing damage safely, documenting the damage, making temporary repairs, contacting your insurance company, and hiring a professional roofing contractor. The article also emphasizes the importance of a thorough roof inspection, timely permanent repairs, and preventative measures to protect your roof from future storm damage. Whether you are dealing with minor leaks or extensive hail damage, this guide will help you manage the situation effectively and maintain the safety of your home.
  • 33
  • 16 Jul 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Revisiting Lorenz’s Error Growth Models: Insights and Applications
This entry examines Lorenz’s error growth models with quadratic and cubic hypotheses, highlighting their mathematical connections to the non-dissipative Lorenz 1963 model. The quadratic error growth model is the logistic ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a quadratic nonlinear term, while the cubic model is derived by replacing the quadratic term with a cubic one. A variable transformation shows that the cubic model can be converted to the same form as the logistic ODE. The relationship between the continuous logistic ODE and its discrete version, the logistic map, illustrates chaotic behaviors, demonstrating computational chaos with large time steps. A variant of the logistic ODE is proposed to show how finite predictability horizons can be determined, emphasizing the continuous dependence on initial conditions (CDIC) related to stable and unstable asymptotic values. This review also presents the mathematical relationship between the logistic ODE and the non-dissipative Lorenz 1963 model.
  • 304
  • 15 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Recent Advances in Dielectric Properties-Based Soil WaterContent Measurements
Dielectric properties are crucial in understanding the behavior of water within soil, particularly the soil water content (SWC), as they measure a material’s ability to store an electric charge and are influenced by water and other minerals in the soil. However, a comprehensive review paper is needed that synthesizes the latest developments in this field, identifies the key challenges and limitations, and outlines future research directions. In addition, various factors, such as soil salinity, temperature, texture, probing space, installation gap, density, clay content, sampling volume, and environmental factors, influence the measurement of the dielectric permittivity of the soil. Therefore, this review aims to address the research gap by critically analyzing the current state-of-the-art dielectric properties-based methods for SWC measurements. The motivation for this review is the increasing importance of precise SWC data for various applications such as agriculture, environmental monitoring, and hydrological studies. We examine time domain reflectometry (TDR), frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), remote sensing (RS), and capacitance, which are accurate and cost-effective, enabling real-time water resource management and soil health understanding through measuring the travel time of electromagnetic waves in soil and the reflection coefficient of these waves. SWC can be estimated using various approaches, such as TDR, FDR, GPR, and microwave-based techniques. These methods are made possible by increasing the dielectric permittivity and loss factor with SWC. The available dielectric properties are further synthesized based on mathematical models relating apparent permittivity to water content, providing an updated understanding of their development, applications, and monitoring. It also analyzes recent mathematical calibration models, applications, algorithms, challenges, and trends in dielectric permittivity methods for estimating SWC.
  • 49
  • 15 Jul 2024
Topic Review
DFT Calculations of XH Stretching Frequencies
X in the title can be either O or N.  Hydrogen bond potentials can be either symmetric or unsymmetric.  The former is the case for CH bonds, whereas for hydrogen bonded systems the potential can be more or less asymmetric depending on the strength of the hydrogen bond. DFT is an abbrviation for Density Functional Theory; CPMD = Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics and VPT2  = Vibrational Second Order Pertubation Theory.  RAHB = Resonace Assisted Hydrogen Bonding.
  • 801
  • 13 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Why You Should Schedule a Free Roof Inspection
Your roof is one of the most vital parts of your home, shielding you from the elements and providing structural support. However, many homeowners neglect roof maintenance until a serious problem arises. Scheduling a roof inspection is a proactive way to ensure your roof remains in optimal condition. This guide will explain the benefits of a free roof inspection, what to expect during the process, and how to prepare for it.
  • 38
  • 12 Jul 2024
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