Topic Review
Apricot
Fruits maintain the image as the richest sources of vitamins. Focusing on apricots, utilization of apricot species for many applications is possible due to its various benefits. Many research studies demonstrated different perspectives of apricot, especially in medical used as it can act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Moreover, in the industrial sectors, apricots can be used in the production of biofuels and batteries.
  • 3
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Reproductive Nanotoxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles
Carbon nanoparticles have unique chemical and physical properties that make them an excellent material that can be applied in many fields of human activity, including industry, food processing, the pharmaceutical industry, or medicine. Although it has a high degree of biocompatibility, possible toxic effects on different tissue types must also be taken into account. Carbon nanoparticles are known to be toxic to the respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, digestive system, etc., and they also have a negative effect on reproduction and offspring development. 
  • 5
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Anaerobic Utilization Methods in Resource Cycling
Анаэробное сбраживание – это биологический процесс, при котором органические вещества разлагаются в анаэробных условиях на простые соединения. Одним из продуктов является метан, экологически чистый возобновляемый источник энергии. Условием эффективного анаэробного брожения является влажность субстрата более 90%. Процесс анаэробного сбраживания органических материалов включает четыре стадии: гидролиз, ацидогенез, ацетогенез и метаногенез. Скорость и эффективность каждой стадии зависят от сформировавшегося консорциума микроорганизмов, которые в той или иной мере находятся в синтрофических отношениях и занимают разные экологические ниши.
  • 1
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
The Origin, Application and Mechanism of Therapeutic Climbing
作为一种创新的运动疗法,治疗性攀岩(TC)近年来吸引了比以往更多的关注。在本文对TC相关研究的综述中,作者探讨了其起源和发展;总结其在治疗抑郁症,腰痛等疾病的治疗效果;并进一步分析其潜在机制。根据文献,TC主要应用于骨科领域,然后逐渐应用于神经病学,精神病学和心理学。它为治疗抑郁症,下背部疼痛,多发性硬化症和其他疾病提供了新的手段。有两种潜在的机制:生理和心理。未来,应通过大样本和高质量随机对照试验来探索TC的运动效果,不良反应和运动处方。
  • 2
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Eye Involvement in Wilson’s Disease
Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene, resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and accumulation in various tissues. Ocular findings are one of the hallmarks of the disease. Many ophthalmological manifestations have been described and new techniques are currently available to improve their diagnosis and to follow their evolution. The most common ocular findings seen in WD patients are Kayser–Fleischer ring (KFR) and sunflower cataracts. Other ocular manifestations may involve retinal tissue, visual systems and eye mobility. Diagnosis and follow-up under decoppering treatment of these ocular findings are generally easily performed with slit-lamp examination (SLE). However, new techniques are available for the precocious detection of ocular findings due to WD and may be of great value for non-experimented ophthalmologists and non-ophthalmologists practitioners. 
  • 1
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Current Challenges in Breast Implantation
Breast implantation (BI) is the most common plastic surgery worldwide performed among women. Generally, BI is performed both in aesthetic and oncoplastic procedures. 
  • 5
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis is a rare dermatological condition with high mortality and serious consequences on its survivors. Despite having been first described in 1956, its pathophysiology remains uncertain, mainly regarding its mechanisms, although it seems that certain apoptosis pathways are pivotal in starting keratinocytes’ apoptosis and in activating T cells, especially those mediated by tumour necrosis factor, Fas-FasL and granulysin. In general, its aetiology and presentation are consensual, being defined as a generalized necrolysis of the epidermis that occurs as an uncontrolled immune response to a specific drug or one of its metabolites, highlighting cotrimoxazole and allopurinol as the most important. This necrolysis leads to a massive shedding of the epidermal layer of the skin, with stronger incidences in the torso, upper limbs and face. Its complications tend to be severe, noting that septic ones are responsible for over half of the disease’s mortality. Nearly all survivors develop long-term sequelae, namely hypertrophic scarring and skin pigmentation anomalies.
  • 3
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Effects of Micro-/Nanorobots on Various Microbial Species
One of the most pressing concerns to global public health is the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms due to increased unconscious antibiotic usage. With the rising antibiotic resistance, existing antimicrobial agents lose their effectiveness over time. This indicates that newer and more effective antimicrobial agents and methods should be investigated. Many studies have shown that micro-/nanorobots exhibit promise in the treatment of microbial infections with their great properties, such as the intrinsic antimicrobial activities owing to their oxidative stress induction and metal ion release capabilities, and effective and autonomous delivery of antibiotics to the target area. In addition, they have multiple simultaneous mechanisms of action against microbes, which makes them remarkable in antimicrobial activity. 
  • 6
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Retinal Toxicity Induced by Chemical Agents
Vision is an important sense for humans, and visual impairment/blindness has a huge impact in daily life. The retina is a nervous tissue that is essential for visual processing since it possesses light sensors (photoreceptors) and performs a pre-processing of visual information. Thus, retinal cell dysfunction or degeneration affects visual ability and several general aspects of the day-to-day of a person’s lives. The retina has a blood–retinal barrier, which protects the tissue from a wide range of molecules or microorganisms. However, several agents, coming from systemic pathways, reach the retina and influence its function and survival. Pesticides are still used worldwide for agriculture, contaminating food with substances that could reach the retina. Natural products have also been used for therapeutic purposes and are another group of substances that can get to the retina. Finally, a wide number of medicines administered for different diseases can also affect the retina. The present review aimed to gather recent information about the hazard of these products to the retina, which could be used to encourage the search for more healthy, suitable, or less risky agents.
  • 3
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Genetic RyR2 Disease
The ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has a critical role in controlling Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) throughout the cardiac cycle. RyR2 protein has multiple functional domains with specific roles, and four of these RyR2 protomers are required to form the quaternary structure that comprises the functional channel. Numerous mutations in the gene encoding RyR2 protein have been identified and many are linked to a wide spectrum of arrhythmic heart disease. Gain of function mutations result in a hyperactive channel that causes excessive spontaneous SR Ca2+ release, but rare hypoactive loss of function mutations have also been described.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
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