Topic Review
Metal Oxide Based Nano-Photocatalysts as Antiviral Agents
Photocatalysis, a unique process that occurs in the presence of light radiation, can potentially be utilized to control environmental pollution, and improve the health of society. Photocatalytic removal, or disinfection, of chemical and biological species has been known for decades; its extension to indoor environments in public places has always been challenging. Many efforts have been made in this direction since the COVID-19 pandemic started. The development of efficient photocatalytic nanomaterials through modifications to improve their photoactivity under ambient conditions for fighting with such a pandemic situation is a high research priority. Several metal oxides-based nano-photocatalysts have been designed to work efficiently in outdoor and indoor environments for the photocatalytic disinfection of biological species. 
  • 63
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Coccidioides Species
Coccidioidomycosis is an important pathogenic fungal infection in much of the desert and semi-arid regions of the Western hemisphere. The incidence of the disease is increasing in both California and Arizona. Although not all infections result in clinical illness, the infection frequently causes serious disease in immunocompetent people and even self-limited coccidioidomycosis can be a prolonged illness requiring anti-fungal therapy. Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic area that is frequently misdiagnosed, and the cost of the disease is substantial. In patients where the infection is not self-limited, the disease can spread to skin, bone, and the central nervous system among many other organs. Although disseminated disease is unusual, it occurs in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, is frequently difficult to treat, and can be fatal. Prolonged treatment is usually required, and meningitis requires life-long therapy.
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  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Mycorrhizal Symbiosis of Ericaceous Plants
Ericaceae are a group of plants with biotechnological and commercial importance. These plants establish symbiotic associations with a wide group of mycorrhizal fungi. National and global studies have focused on two of them: arbuscular endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae. The classification of mycorrhizae by type of infection described so far in Ericaceae includes ectomycorrhizae, ectendomycorrhizae, and endomycorrhizae. Ectendomycorrhizas can be of arbutoid, monotropoid, and cavendishioid types; endomycorrhizas are of ericoid and arbuscular types. Of these clades, ectomycorrhizas and ectendomycorrhizas (arbutoid, monotropoid, and cavendishioid) form a multilayer mantle of hyphae around the root; while ericoid, unlike the previous ones, develop their intra- and intercellular structures.
  • 27
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Extreme Points of Earth
This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries. For other lists of extreme points on Earth, including places that hold temperature and weather records, see Extremes on Earth, Lists of extreme points, and List of weather records.
  • 5
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Versatile Electronics for Microwave Holographic RADAR
The NATO SPS G-5014 project has shown the possibility of using a holographic RADAR for the detection of anti-personnel mines. To use the RADAR on a robotic scanning system, it must be portable, light, easily integrated with mechanical handling systems and configurable in its operating parameters for optimal performance on different terrains. The novel contribution is to use software programmable electronics to optimize performance and to use a time reference to obtain synchronization between the RADAR samples and the position in space, in order to make it easy to integrate the RADAR on robotic platforms. 
  • 4
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah
Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) (Arabic: رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة; IPA: [raʔs lˈxajma]), also spelled as Ras al Khaimah or Ras al-Khaimah, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes simply abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the emirate and home to most of the emirate's residents. It is linked to the medieval trading port of Julfar.[lower-alpha 1] Its name in English means "top of the tent". The emirate borders Oman's exclave of Musandam, and occupies part of the same peninsula. It covers an area of 2,486 km2 (960 sq mi) and has 64 km (40 mi) of beach coastline. As of 2015, the emirate had a population of about 345,000, of which about 31% were Emirati citizens. RAK city has two main areas - the Old Town and Nakheel - on either side of a creek that is home to mangroves and is framed by the North-Western Hajar Mountains. The emirate also consists of several villages and new gated residential developments, such as Al Hamra Village and Mina Al Arab. The emirate is served by Ras Al Khaimah International Airport. Its geography consists of a northern part (where Ras Al Khaimah City and most towns are situated) and a large southerly inland exclave (near the Dubai exclave of Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf. Ras Al Khaimah has the most fertile soil in the country, due to a larger share of rainfall and underground water streams from the Hajar.
  • 2
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
β-glucan in Dairy and Milk-Based Products
β-glucan is a polysaccharide found naturally in the cell walls of cereals, yeasts, seaweeds, bacteria, and fungi. The physicochemical, functional, and technological properties of β-glucan are extremely different, depending on the source of origin. This polysaccharide is used in the therapeutic, cosmetic, fitness, and professional sports fields. Interest in β-glucan has arisen because it is a powerful immunostimulant, prebiotic, and dietary fiber. Interest in the use of β-glucan in the food industry is associated not only with its positive impact on the health of consumers but also with its functional and technological properties, which significantly improve the consumer characteristics of food products. The use of oat β-glucan in the food industry became possible when the EFSA confirmed in 2010 that the daily consumption of oat β-glucan in the amount of 3 g can reduce the risk of coronary disease and have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, provided that a diet with low saturated fat content is followed. β-glucan made from yeast has been recognized as a novel ingredient and authorized for release since 2011.
  • 27
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Informing Science
Informing science is a transdiscipline that was established to promote the study of informing processes across a diverse set of academic disciplines, including management information systems, education, business, instructional technology, computer science, communications, psychology, philosophy, library science, information science and many others. Its principal unit of analysis is the informing system, a collection of informers, clients, and channels that has been designed or has evolved to serve a particular informing need. The organization created to advance the informing science transdiscipline is the Informing Science Institute (ISI), whose founder, Eli Cohen, proposed the need for the field in his article "Reconceptualizing Information Systems as a Field of the Transdiscipline Informing Science: From Ugly Duckling to Swan" (Cohen, 1999). The ISI presently hosts an annual conference (Informing Science & Information Technology Education (InSITE)), publishes thirteen academic journals, and—through its Informing Science Press—has published dozens of books. Both its journals and books are open access at no cost online, as well as being available for purchase in print form.
  • 3
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Decent Work
Decent work (DW) has emerged as a growing paradigm for all, entailing fundamental principles and rights at work which can pervade all human resource management (HRM)practices. While studies on DW are generally examined on macro levels, such as social, economic, legal, and political, the rising emphasis to realize the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) No. 8 of the UN and highlight the importance of quality of employment.
  • 10
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Individualist Anarchism in France
Individualist anarchism in France has developed a line of thought that starts from the pioneering activism and writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Anselme Bellegarrigue in the mid-19th century. In the early 20th century, it produced publications such as L'En-Dehors, L'Anarchie and around its principles it found writers and activists such as Émile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Albert Libertad and Zo d'Axa. In the post-war years, there appeared the publication L'Unique and activist writers such as Charles-Auguste Bontemps. In contemporary times, it has found a new expression in the writings of the prolific philosopher Michel Onfray. Individualist anarchism is a group of several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems. French individualist anarchism was characterized by an eclectic set of currents of thought and practices which included anti-militarism, freelove, freethought, illegalism and naturism. While most American individualist anarchists advocates mutualism, a libertarian socialist from of market socialism, or a free-market socialist form of classical economics, European individualist anarchists are pluralists who advocate anarchism without adjectives and synthesis anarchism, ranging from anarcho-communist to mutualist economic types.
  • 2
  • 30 Sep 2022
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