Topic Review
ω-3 PUFA on colon cancer
Substantial human and animal studies support the beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colonic inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are inconsistent results, which have shown that ω-3 PUFAs have no effect or even detrimental effects, making it difficult to effectively implement ω-3 PUFAs for disease prevention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of ω-3 PUFAs will help to clarify their potential health-promoting effects, provide a scientific base for cautions for their use, and establish dietary recommendations.
  • 199
  • 17 Nov 2020
Topic Review
σ-hole
σ-hole is a region of depleted electronic density located on the outer side of a covalently-bonded atom, situated roughly along an extension of the bond axis  
  • 314
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
δ-Cells
Somatostatin-secreting δ-cells have aroused great attention due to their powerful roles in coordination of islet insulin and glucagon secretion and maintenance of glucose homeostasis. δ-cells exhibit neuron-like morphology with projections which enable pan-islet somatostatin paracrine regulation despite their scarcity in the islets. 
  • 142
  • 06 Apr 2021
Topic Review
γδ T Cells in ARDs
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), affecting ~1–1.5% of all humans, are associated with considerable life long morbidity and early mortality. Early studies in the 1990s showed numerical changes of the recently discovered γδ T cells in the peripheral blood and in affected tissues of patients with a variety of ARDs, kindling interest in their role in the immuno-pathogenesis of these chronic inflammatory conditions. Indeed, later studies applied rapid developments in the understanding of γδ T cell biology, including antigens recognized by γδ T cells, their developmental programs, states of activation, and cytokine production profiles, to analyze their contribution to the pathological immune response in these disorders.
  • 136
  • 14 May 2021
Topic Review
γ-Secretase
γ-Secretase is an aspartyl protease.
  • 141
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous short chain fatty acid that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the mammalian brain. It has often been illegally abused or misused due to its strong anesthetic effect, particularly in drug-facilitated crimes worldwide. However, proving its ingestion is not straightforward because of the difficulty in distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous GHB, as well as its rapid metabolism. Metabolomics and metabolism studies have recently been used to identify potential biomarkers of GHB exposure. 
  • 169
  • 04 Mar 2021
Topic Review
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
  • 218
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
γ-aminobutyric Acid and Barley Seedlings
It has been revealed that high NaCl stress (>60 mmol L−1) induced phenolics accumulation in barley seedlings, with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) playing a key role. Interestingly, low NaCl stimulus (20 mmol L−1) enhancing phenolics synthesis and growth of barley seedlings was also reported recently. Hence, exogenous GABA and its bio-synthesis inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP) were applied to reveal the mechanism of GABA regulating phenolics metabolism in barley seedlings treated with 20 mmol L−1 NaCl. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids significantly increased by 11.64% and 14.52% under NaCl, respectively. The addition of GABA further increased phenolics and flavonoids contents, especially for gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin, compared with NaCl treatment. Simultaneously, GABA increased the activities and mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumalyl CoA ligase (4CL). The addition of 3-MP suppressed the above effects, except for increasing the protein levels of PAL, C4H, and 4CL. Low concentration of NaCl not only promoted growth, but also stimulated endogenous GABA metabolism to affect key enzymes activities and mRNA levels for phenolics synthesis in barley seedlings.
  • 140
  • 15 Oct 2021
Topic Review
βTCP-Poly(3hydroxybutyrate) for Bone Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering is a technique that involves the in vitro seeding and attachment of cells onto a three-dimensional scaffold. In the case of bone tissue engineering, investigations have been focused mostly on synthetic bioceramic scaffolds based on calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate. Due to their chemical similarity to an inorganic component of bone, hydroxyapatite, as well as βTCP- and αTCP-based materials, show excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. 
  • 134
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
β-Ti Alloys for Orthopedic and Dental Applications
Ti and Ti alloys have charming comprehensive properties (high specific strength, strong corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility) that make them the ideal choice in orthopedic and dental applications, especially in the particular fabrication of orthopedic and dental implants. However, these alloys present some shortcomings, specifically elastic modulus, wear, corrosion, and biological performance. Beta-titanium (β-Ti) alloys have been studied as low elastic modulus and low toxic or non-toxic elements.
  • 169
  • 28 Mar 2022
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