Topic Review
蓝藻对水生环境和人类健康的影响
蓝藻水华是一个全球性的水环境问题。近年来,由于全球变暖和水体富营养化,地表蓝藻在一定区域内聚集,形成受风驱动的蓝藻水华。蓝藻水华会改变水的物理和化学性质并造成污染。此外,蓝藻在凋亡过程中向水中释放有机物、N(氮)和P(磷),加速水体富营养化,威胁水生动植物群,影响水中微生物的群落结构和丰度。同时,蓝藻释放的毒素和致癌物可通过食物链/网富集,危害人类健康。 
  • 34
  • 05 Oct 2022
Topic Review
中国传统五音阶的音乐世代
Recent studies demonstrate that algorithmic music attracted global attention not only because of its amusement but also its considerable potential in the industry. Thus, the yield increased academic numbers spinning around on topics of algorithm music generation. The balance between mathematical logic and aesthetic value is important in music generation.
  • 36
  • 03 Oct 2022
Topic Review
ω-3 PUFA on colon cancer
Substantial human and animal studies support the beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colonic inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are inconsistent results, which have shown that ω-3 PUFAs have no effect or even detrimental effects, making it difficult to effectively implement ω-3 PUFAs for disease prevention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of ω-3 PUFAs will help to clarify their potential health-promoting effects, provide a scientific base for cautions for their use, and establish dietary recommendations.
  • 232
  • 17 Nov 2020
Topic Review
σ-hole
σ-hole is a region of depleted electronic density located on the outer side of a covalently-bonded atom, situated roughly along an extension of the bond axis  
  • 396
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
δ-Cells
Somatostatin-secreting δ-cells have aroused great attention due to their powerful roles in coordination of islet insulin and glucagon secretion and maintenance of glucose homeostasis. δ-cells exhibit neuron-like morphology with projections which enable pan-islet somatostatin paracrine regulation despite their scarcity in the islets. 
  • 161
  • 06 Apr 2021
Topic Review
γδ T Cells in ARDs
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), affecting ~1–1.5% of all humans, are associated with considerable life long morbidity and early mortality. Early studies in the 1990s showed numerical changes of the recently discovered γδ T cells in the peripheral blood and in affected tissues of patients with a variety of ARDs, kindling interest in their role in the immuno-pathogenesis of these chronic inflammatory conditions. Indeed, later studies applied rapid developments in the understanding of γδ T cell biology, including antigens recognized by γδ T cells, their developmental programs, states of activation, and cytokine production profiles, to analyze their contribution to the pathological immune response in these disorders.
  • 154
  • 14 May 2021
Topic Review
γ-Secretase
γ-Secretase is an aspartyl protease.
  • 170
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous short chain fatty acid that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the mammalian brain. It has often been illegally abused or misused due to its strong anesthetic effect, particularly in drug-facilitated crimes worldwide. However, proving its ingestion is not straightforward because of the difficulty in distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous GHB, as well as its rapid metabolism. Metabolomics and metabolism studies have recently been used to identify potential biomarkers of GHB exposure. 
  • 198
  • 04 Mar 2021
Topic Review
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
  • 276
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
γ-aminobutyric Acid and Barley Seedlings
It has been revealed that high NaCl stress (>60 mmol L−1) induced phenolics accumulation in barley seedlings, with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) playing a key role. Interestingly, low NaCl stimulus (20 mmol L−1) enhancing phenolics synthesis and growth of barley seedlings was also reported recently. Hence, exogenous GABA and its bio-synthesis inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP) were applied to reveal the mechanism of GABA regulating phenolics metabolism in barley seedlings treated with 20 mmol L−1 NaCl. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids significantly increased by 11.64% and 14.52% under NaCl, respectively. The addition of GABA further increased phenolics and flavonoids contents, especially for gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin, compared with NaCl treatment. Simultaneously, GABA increased the activities and mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumalyl CoA ligase (4CL). The addition of 3-MP suppressed the above effects, except for increasing the protein levels of PAL, C4H, and 4CL. Low concentration of NaCl not only promoted growth, but also stimulated endogenous GABA metabolism to affect key enzymes activities and mRNA levels for phenolics synthesis in barley seedlings.
  • 167
  • 15 Oct 2021
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