Topic Review
 Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are genetically complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) resulting from genetic factors and gene-environment (GxE) interactions for which onset occurs in early brain development.
  • 48
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
‘Chen Xi’ Rose
Flower color is one of the most prominent traits of rose flowers and determines their ornamental value. The ‘Chen Xi’ variety of rose has a very beautiful flower showing color changes during the blooming, which contributes a lot to its ornamental value. 
  • 330
  • 22 Oct 2021
Topic Review
‘Cow Signs’ in Assessing the Quality of Nutrition
Cow signs are behavioral, physiological, and management parameters that can be observed and measured. Cow signs can be used as a field approach to evaluate the composition of the ration, the quality of rumen fermentation, the quality of digestion, and the general herd health of cattle of interest. This research of cow signs associated with nutrition provides farm advisors, consultants, nutritionists, practitioners, and dairy farmers with an additional toolkit that can be used to improve the assessment of the quality of dairy cattle nutrition. ‘Cow signs’ are not to be used alone as a sole tool for assessment of the quality or nutrition of dairy cows. Some of the ‘cow signs’ are incorporated in precision technologies on many dairy farms and are extensively used in the assessment of dairy cow welfare, health, and nutrition. 
  • 146
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
‘Helete Güneşi’, a New Walnut Cultivar
‘Helete Güneşi’ was selected among different genotypes obtained from crossing ‘Maraş 18’ × ‘Chandler’ in Turkey. The present study compares phenological and pomological traits of ‘Helete Güneşi’ with those of its parents so as to scale their performances. ‘Helete Güneşi’ staged leaf out on 22 April, whereas its parents, ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’, did on 20 and 12 April, respectively. The harvest date of ‘Helete Güneşi’ was as early as 17 September, whereas ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’ began to be harvested on 5 October and 15 September, respectively. Defoliation in ‘Helete Güneşi’ occurred about 1 month earlier than ‘Chandler’. The nut weight and kernel percentage of ‘Helete Güneşi’ were 13.41 g and 53.39%, respectively, whereas in ‘Chandler’ the values were 12.73 g and 48.23%, respectively, but were 14.62 g and 53.76% in ‘Maraş 18’. ‘Helete Güneşi’ had a higher yield value compared to its parents. The results demonstrated that ‘Helete Güneşi’ has superior traits in being selected for late leafing date, early harvest date, high yield, and good nut quality. Therefore, it can be considered as a valuable genetic resource in future breeding programs around the world.
  • 257
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
‘Lockdown’: Digital and Emergency eLearning Technologies
The pandemic disrupted all aspects of citizens’ lives—health services, the economy and educational practices. Government-mandated social distancing and stay-at-home injunctions required a drastic change in educational processes and delivery. The digital economy became the glue holding the “socially-distanced economy” together. As Bhaskar et al. (p. 6) contended, digitalization helped people to work, learn, shop, and socialize while locked down; it allowed society to cling to some semblance of normalcy.
  • 9
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review Video
‘Teratoid’ Hepatoblastoma
Liver neoplasms are quite rare in childhood. They often involve 6.7 cases per 10 million children aged 18 years or younger. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most frequent tumor, but this neoplasm’s rarity points essentially to the difficulty of performing biologic studies and large-scale therapeutic trials. On the pathological ground, HB is separated into an entirely epithelial neoplasm or a mixed neoplasm with epithelial and mesenchymal components. This last category has been further subdivided into harboring teratoid features or not. The ‘teratoid’ HB includes a mixture of components with heterologous origin.
  • 149
  • 24 Apr 2022
Topic Review
"Zorbas" on Southeastern Sicily
Over the last few years, several authors have presented contrasting models to describe the response of boulders to extreme waves, but the absence of direct observation of movements has hindered the evaluation of these models. The recent development of online video-sharing platforms in coastal settings has provided the opportunity to monitor the evolution of rocky coastlines during storm events. In September 2018, a surveillance camera of the Marine Protected Area of Plemmirio recorded the movement of several boulders along the coast of Maddalena Peninsula (Siracusa, Southeastern Sicily) during the landfall of the Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone (Medicane) Zorbas. Unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys were performed to reconstruct immersive virtual scenarios to geometrically analyze the boulder displacements recorded in the video. Analyses highlighted that the displacements occurred when the boulders were submerged as a result of the impact of multiple small waves rather than due to a single large wave. Comparison between flow velocities obtained by videos and calculated through relationships showed a strong overestimation of the models, suggesting that values of flow density and lift coefficient used in literature are underestimated.
  • 661
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
“Brick-and-Mortar” Composites Made of 2D Carbon Nanoparticles
Among all biomimetic materials, nacre has drawn great attention from the scientific community, thanks to superior levels of strength and toughness and its brick-and-mortar (B&M) architecture. However, achieving the desired performances is challenging since the mechanical response of the material is influenced by many factors, such as the filler content, the matrix molecular mobility and the compatibility between the two phases. Most importantly, the properties of a macroscopic bulk material strongly depend on the interaction at atomic levels and on their synergetic effect. In particular, the formation of highly-ordered brick-and-mortar structures depends on the interaction forces between the two phases. Consequently, poor mechanical performances of the material are associated with interface issues and low stress transfer from the matrix to the nanoparticles. Therefore, improvement of the interface at the chemical level enhances the mechanical response of the material. 
  • 146
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
“Food Village”: An Innovative Alternative Food Network
Although the different alternative food networks (AFNs) have experienced increases worldwide for the last thirty years, they are still unable to provide an alternative capable of spreading on a large scale. They in fact remain niche experiments due to some limitations on their structure and governance. Max-Neef’s Needs Matrix and Design Thinking (DT) tools were used to develop the design model. Applying the design method to the food chain is helpful to develop the concept of the “Food Village”, an innovative food supply network far from the current economic mechanisms and based on the community and eco-sustainability.
  • 170
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
“Omic” Studies and Cadasil
CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy; OMIM#125310) is a systemic arteriopathy of non-atherosclerotic and non-amyloid cause. It is a rare disease affecting fewer than 2/1000 individuals, caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. It has autosomal dominant inheritance, although it can also occur due to de novo mutations. 
  • 378
  • 26 Jul 2021
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