Topic Review
Palm Wine
The reference to palm wine as a drink with many functionalities has increased over the years. However, few empirical tests have been carried out on humans to substantiate the claims. This perspective looks at the biochemical and microbiological reports on palm wine to highlight the constituents that are associated with functional beverages. Based on the constituents of the drink, it may qualify as a multifunctional beverage because several investigators have demonstrated disease risk reduction, improved nutrition and health outcomes in many studies, albeit in rats rather than humans. The constituents found in functional beverages are present in the drink. However, when assessed under European Union regulations, fermented palm wine (from 3% alcohol) cannot be regarded as a functional beverage because beverages that contain over 1.2% alcohol cannot be approved for any claim on health or nutritional benefit. The fresh sap with much lower alcohol may be suitable after it is refined and subjected to scientific examination to determine quantities of the drink that can confer health benefits on humans.
  • 5403
  • 10 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation
Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) is a thermodynamically-driven, reversible phenomenon consisting in de-mixing into two distinct liquid phases, with different solute concentrations.
  • 5305
  • 24 Feb 2021
Topic Review
We present an overview of the current state of knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to an overview of the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of SARS-CoV-2, we also summarize possible therapeutic options currently under investigation and the future outlook for the disease. Whereas the trials on SARS-CoV-2 genome-based specific vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently being tested, this solution is more long-term, as they require thorough testing of their safety. On the other hand, the repurposing of the existing therapeutic agents previously designed for other virus infections and pathologies happens to be the only practical approach as a rapid response measure to the emergent pandemic. The current pandemic emergency will be a trigger for more systematic drug repurposing design approaches based on big data analysis.
  • 5149
  • 06 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Viroids: Definition and Features
Viroids are plant-restricted parasites that represent a remarkable model system to analyze many aspects of host-pathogen interactions at the genomic level. As the smallest known agents of infectious disease (247-401 nucleotides, nt), they have a highly structured, single-stranded circular naked and non-coding RNA genome. Although the list of known diseases caused by viroids and molecular characterization of the causative agents has expanded since they were discovered, their origin, evolution, and interaction with host genetic machinery to induce symptoms or escape the defensive system remain unclear.
  • 4863
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Pro-Environmental Behavior
Pro-environmental behavior, also known as green-, sustainable-, or environmentally-friendly (eco-friendly) behavior, is defined as behaviors in which individuals take protective actions toward the environment [8]. 
  • 4743
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Essential Oil Prevents COVID-19
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV‑2), also known as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a pandemic disease that has been declared as modern history’s gravest health emergency worldwide. Until now, no precise treatment modality has been developed. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, a host cell receptor, has been found to play a crucial role in virus cell entry; therefore, ACE2 blockers can be a potential target for anti-viral intervention. In this study, we evaluated the ACE2 inhibitory effects of 10 essential oils. Among them, geranium and lemon oils displayed significant ACE2 inhibitory effects in epithelial cells. In addition, immunoblotting and qPCR analysis also confirmed that geranium and lemon oils possess potent ACE2 inhibitory effects. Furthermore, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis displayed 22 compounds in geranium oil and 9 compounds in lemon oil. Citronellol, geraniol, and neryl acetate were the major compounds of geranium oil and limonene that represented major compound of lemon oil. Next, we found that treatment with citronellol and limonene significantly downregulated ACE2 expression in epithelial cells. The results suggest that geranium and lemon essential oils and their derivative compounds are valuable natural anti-viral agents that may contribute to the prevention of the invasion of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 into the human body.
  • 4610
  • 13 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Blockchain Oracle Problem
The Blockchain Oracle Problem refers to the inability of confirming the veracity of the data collected by oracles. Also, depending on the type, the chances of malfunction, and deliberate tampering. 
  • 4522
  • 11 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Extraction Techniques in Sample Preparation
Sample preparation is the most crucial step in the analytical procedure designed for implementation in any analytical application (food analysis, bionalysis, forensics, toxicology, environmental monitoring etc). It is the limiting factor in chemical analysis since it is time consuming and it can potentially introduce errors. No one can doubt that the best approach would be the direct introduction of the sample to the instrument, however this is rarely feasible. Efficient sample pretreatment is inevitably required as the instrument technology has produced highly sophisticated and sensitive analytical equipment. Hence, the analytical scientists have to develop and apply a suitable sample preparation protocol that ensures that the composition of the sample remains unchanged, no impurities are introduced during handling, all interferences have been left back, the analytes’ concentration is not only at detectable levels, but it can also be quantified precisely and accurately and that the matrix of the sample is compatible with the analytical technique. Extraction techniques are the most powerful tool in hands of the analytical chemists and lab practitioners. Either sorbent based or solvent based, extraction techniques provide the necessary tool that can be used to handle the sample in a way that all information in it can be revealed, all advantages in instrumentation have been exploited to the fullest and the lifetime of the instrument is prolonged in a seamless operation mode.
  • 4476
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Black Soldier Fly
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, is a large Stratiomyidae fly (13-20 mm size) found worldwide, but it is believed to have originated in the Americas. It is frequently found in the tropics and temperate regions throughout the world. Although adapted primarily to these regions, it can tolerate wide extremes of temperature except when ovipositing. They are generally considered a beneficial insect and non-pest. The adult fly does not have mouthparts, stingers, or digestive organs; thus, they do not bite or sting and do not feed during its short lifespan. They feed only as larvae and are, therefore, not associated with disease transmission. BSF larvae (BSFL) are voracious eaters of a wide range of organic wastes, decomposing and returning nutrients to the soil. Additionally, BSFL is an alternative  protein source for aquaculture, pet food, livestock feed, and human nutrition.
  • 4387
  • 28 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Geopolymer Concrete
Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete that is made by reacting aluminate and silicate bearing materials with a caustic activator, such as fly ash or slag from iron and metal production. It can be a suitable substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). 
  • 4376
  • 18 Feb 2022
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