Topic Review
Nrf2 in Neurogenesis and Disease Development
Neurogenesis occurs in the brain during embryonic development and throughout adulthood. Neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and under normal conditions and persists in two regions of the brain—the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a major regulator of metabolism, protein quality control, and antioxidative defense, and is linked to neurogenesis. 
  • 95
  • 13 Jul 2022
Topic Review
O-GlcNAcylation Regulate Skeletal Muscle
O-GlcNAcylation is a highly dynamic, reversible and atypical glycosylation that regulates the activity, biological function, stability, sublocation and interaction of target proteins. O-GlcNAcylation receives and coordinates different signal inputs as an intracellular integrator similar to the nutrient sensor and stress receptor, which target multiple substrates with spatio-temporal analysis specifically to maintain cellular homeostasis and normal physiological functions.
  • 58
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in Glial Cells
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels and key mediators of responses to neuronal injury. ASICs exhibit unique patterns of distribution in the brain, with high expression in neurons and low expression in glial cells. While there has been a lot of focus on ASIC in neurons, less is known about the roles of ASICs in glial cells. ASIC1a is expressed in astrocytes and might contribute to synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation. In oligodendrocytes, constitutive activation of ASIC1a participates in demyelinating diseases. ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC3, found in microglial cells, could mediate the inflammatory response. Under pathological conditions, ASIC dysregulation in glial cells can contribute to disease states. For example, activation of astrocytic ASIC1a may worsen neurodegeneration and glioma staging, activation of microglial ASIC1a and ASIC2a may perpetuate ischemia and inflammation, while oligodendrocytic ASIC1a might be involved in multiple sclerosis.
  • 80
  • 08 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Acute Psychosocial Stress Effects on Food Consumption
The most central physiological stress response is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which begins with the release of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus. The physiological stress response can be dampened by eating, as the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is reduced following consumption of food and the activation of the HPA axis is thereby attenuated.
  • 36
  • 27 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Aging and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency
Under normal physiological conditions, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) consumption is matched by its synthesis primarily via the salvage pathway catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). However, aging and muscular contraction enhance NAD+ utilization, whereas NAD+ replenishment is limited by cellular sources of NAD+ precursors and/or enzyme expression.
  • 82
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Airway Inflammation
The effects of airway inflammation on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα).
  • 158
  • 12 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Aminopeptidases in Cardiovascular and Renal
       The entry tries to summarize our current understanding of the role of aminopeptidases in the control of blood pressure, through their effects on kidney function. Their possible role as biomarkers on acute or chronic kidney injury is also analyzed.
  • 250
  • 28 Aug 2020
Topic Review
AMP-activated Protein Kinase
We live and to do so we must breathe and eat, so are we a combination of what we eat and breathe? Here we will consider this question, and the role in this respect of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to central regulation of feeding and food choice. We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. If this is the case, then aberrant cell-specific changes in the expression of AMPK subunit isoforms could give rise, in part, to known associations between a wide variety of conditions associated with metabolic disorder.
  • 329
  • 10 May 2021
Topic Review
Angiotensin II
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western and developing world, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing with the longer lifespan afforded by our modern lifestyle.  Vascular diseases including coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke comprise the majority of cardiovascular disease and therefore represent a significant medical and socioeconomic burden on our society.  It is not be surprising that these conditions overlap and potentiate each other when we consider the many cellular and molecular similarities between them. At the molecular level, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is the target, integrator, and effector cell of both atherogenic and the major effector protein of the hypertensive signal, Angiotensin II (Ang II).  Together, these signals can potentiate each other and prime the artery and exacerbate hypertension and atherosclerosis. Therefore, VSMC are the fulcrum in progression of these diseases and therefore, understanding the effects of atherogenic stimuli and Ang II on VSMC is  key to understanding and treating  atherosclerosis and hypertension.  In this review, we will examine studies in which hypertension and atherosclerosis intersect on the VSMC, and illustrate common pathways between these two diseases and vascular aging.
  • 294
  • 07 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Aquaporins in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane water channel proteins that control osmotically-driven water transport across cell membranes. Recent studies have focused on the assessment of fluid flux regulation in relation to the biological processes that maintain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) physiology. In particular, AQPs seem to regulate MSC proliferation through rapid regulation of the cell volume. Furthermore, several reports have shown that AQPs play a crucial role in modulating MSC attachment to the extracellular matrix, their spread, and migration. This review aims to describe the recent findings on AQPs role in MSCs physiology taking into account their reflex for potential applicatio in regenerative medicine.
  • 153
  • 24 Dec 2020
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