Topic Review
L-System
An L-system or Lindenmayer system is a parallel rewriting system and a type of formal grammar. An L-system consists of an alphabet of symbols that can be used to make strings, a collection of production rules that expand each symbol into some larger string of symbols, an initial "axiom" string from which to begin construction, and a mechanism for translating the generated strings into geometric structures. L-systems were introduced and developed in 1968 by Aristid Lindenmayer, a Hungarian theoretical biologist and botanist at the University of Utrecht. Lindenmayer used L-systems to describe the behaviour of plant cells and to model the growth processes of plant development. L-systems have also been used to model the morphology of a variety of organisms and can be used to generate self-similar fractals.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Biography
Grigore Rosu
Grigore Roșu is a computer science professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a researcher in the Information Trust Institute.[1] He is known for his contributions in runtime verification, K framework,[2] matching logic,[3] and automated coinduction.[4] Rosu received a B.A. in Mathematics in 1995 and an M.S. in Fundamentals of Computing in 1996, both from the University
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules) 2018
The draft Information Technology [Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018 seeks to amend India 's Intermediary Guidelines Rules 2011 by making intermediaries legally required to provide time-bound assistance to any government agency, provide traceability requirements, as well as deploy "technology-based automated tools to identify and remove public access to unlawful information". Intermediaries with more than 5,000,000 users must set up a company in India. The changes also include prohibited hosting of another category of content, i.e. ‘public health or safety’. The draft Rules have been framed under Section 79 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 which covers intermediary liability. The Indian Government’s Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) had invited comments on proposed amendments early in 2019. The amendments were seen by many to "overstep the aforesaid intention sparking concerns of violating free speech and privacy rights of individuals." It is seen that "the guidelines suffer with excessive delegation of powers and shift the burden of responsibility of identification of unlawful content from a government/ judiciary to intermediaries." A total of 171 comments were received by MeitY; all of the comments were published for counter comments. On 21 October 2019, MeitY asked the court for three months’ time for finalisation of the Intermediary Rules, 2018.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Biography
Andrey Korotayev
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Russian: Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodyn
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Security in V2I Communications
Recently, the number of vehicles equipped with wireless connections has increased considerably. The impact of that growth in areas such as telecommunications, infotainment, and automatic driving is enormous. More and more drivers want to be part of a vehicular network, despite the implications or risks that, for instance, the openness of wireless communications, its dynamic topology, and its considerable size may bring. Undoubtedly, this trend is because of the benefits the vehicular network can offer. Generally, a vehicular network has two modes of communication (V2I and V2V). The advantage of V2I over V2V is roadside units’ high computational and transmission power, which assures the functioning of early warning and driving guidance services. Researchers have identified the non-resistance to attacks, the regular updating and exposure of keys, and the high dependence on certification authorities as main vulnerabilities. Thus, the authors found schemes resistant to attacks, authentication schemes, privacy protection models, and intrusion detection and prevention systems. They also determined that most of them use metrics such as computational cost and communication overhead to measure their performance. Additionally, they determined that the solutions that use emerging technologies such as fog/edge/cloud computing present better results than the rest. Finally, they established that the principal challenge in V2I communication is to protect and dispose of a safe and reliable communication channel to avoid adversaries taking control of the medium.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
State-of-the-Art on Recommender Systems for E-Learning
Recommender systems (RSs) are increasingly recognized as intelligent software for predicting users’ opinions on specific items. Various RSs have been developed in different domains, such as e-commerce, e-government, e-resource services, e-business, e-library, e-tourism, and e-learning, to make excellent user recommendations. In e-learning technology, RSs are designed to support and improve the learning practices of a student or an organization.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Biography
Rebekah Jones
Rebekah D. Jones (born July 1989) is an American geographer, specializing in using geographic information system (GIS) data science to track hurricanes and climatology. She used geographic information system software to create the Florida Department of Health COVID-19 dashboard, but was fired from her job in May 2020, which she said was due to her refusal to hide COVID-19 data. Jones is often re
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Operating-System-Level Virtualization
Operating-system-level virtualization, also known as containerization, refers to an operating system feature in which the kernel allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances. Such instances, called containers, partitions, virtual environments (VEs) or jails (FreeBSD jail or chroot jail), may look like real computers from the point of view of programs running in them. A computer program running on an ordinary operating system can see all resources (connected devices, files and folders, network shares, CPU power, quantifiable hardware capabilities) of that computer. However, programs running inside a container can only see the container's contents and devices assigned to the container. On Unix-like operating systems, this feature can be seen as an advanced implementation of the standard chroot mechanism, which changes the apparent root folder for the current running process and its children. In addition to isolation mechanisms, the kernel often provides resource-management features to limit the impact of one container's activities on other containers. System-level-virtualization is frequently implemented in remote access applications with dynamic cloud access, allowing for simultaneous two-way data streaming over closed networks.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Web Desktop
A web desktop or webtop is a desktop environment embedded in a web browser or similar client application. A webtop integrates web applications, web services, client–server applications, application servers, and applications on the local client into a desktop environment using the desktop metaphor. Web desktops provide an environment similar to that of Windows, Mac, or a graphical user interface on Unix and Linux systems. It is a virtual desktop running in a web browser. In a webtop the applications, data, files, configuration, settings, and access privileges reside remotely over the network. Much of the computing takes place remotely. The browser is primarily used for display and input purposes. In popular use, web desktops are sometimes referred to incorrectly as a web operating system or simply a Web OS.
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  • 06 Dec 2022
Biography
John Pell
John Pell (1 March 1611 – 12 December 1685) was an English mathematician and political agent abroad. He was born at Southwick in Sussex. His father, also named John Pell, was from Southwick, and his mother was Mary Holland, from Halden in Kent. The second of two sons, Pell's older brother was Thomas Pell. By the time he was six, they were orphans, their father dying in 1616 and their mother
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  • 06 Dec 2022
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