Topic Review
HP NewWave
NewWave is a discontinued object-oriented graphical desktop environment and office productivity tool for PCs running early versions of Microsoft Windows (beginning with 2.0). It was developed by Hewlett-Packard and introduced commercially in 1988. It was used on the HP Vectras and other IBM compatible PCs running MS Windows. From a user perspective NewWave ran on top of MS Windows and completely replaced the standard Windows Desktop and Program Manager user interface with its own object-oriented desktop interface. HP promoted NewWave until the release of Windows 95, at which time further development of the product ceased due to incompatibility with the new operating system. The NewWave GUI (together with the contemporaneous NeXTSTEP GUI) introduced the shaded "3-D look and feel" that was later widely adopted. HP encouraged independent software vendors to produce versions of applications which took advantage of NewWave functionality, allowing their data to be handled as objects instead of files. One early example was Samna Corporation (later acquired by Lotus) who produced an edition of their Microsoft Windows word processor Ami Pro entitled ‘’Ami Pro for NewWave’’. On June 20, 1988 Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett-Packard issued a press release announcing the inclusion of NewWave support in an up-coming release Microsoft Excel. NewWave featured icons, scheduled scripts in the form of "agents", and "hot connects." HP incorporated NewWave into their multi-platform office automation offerings running under their proprietary MPE and HP-UX (UNIX) minicomputer operating systems. They developed NewWave versions of key email, database, document management, personal productivity, communications and network management tools and branded all related solutions under the “HP NewWave Office” banner. Prior to the integration of HP NewWave this solution set had been known as “Business System Plus”. The “NewWave Office” term had been used previously to describe the main NewWave user desktop.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Supercomputer Operating Systems
Since the end of the 20th century, supercomputer operating systems have undergone major transformations, as fundamental changes have occurred in supercomputer architecture. While early operating systems were custom tailored to each supercomputer to gain speed, the trend has been moving away from in-house operating systems and toward some form of Linux, with it running all the supercomputers on the TOP500 list in November 2017. Given that modern massively parallel supercomputers typically separate computations from other services by using multiple types of nodes, they usually run different operating systems on different nodes, e.g., using a small and efficient lightweight kernel such as Compute Node Kernel (CNK) or Compute Node Linux (CNL) on compute nodes, but a larger system such as a Linux-derivative on server and input/output (I/O) nodes. While in a traditional multi-user computer system job scheduling is in effect a tasking problem for processing and peripheral resources, in a massively parallel system, the job management system needs to manage the allocation of both computational and communication resources, as well as gracefully dealing with inevitable hardware failures when tens of thousands of processors are present. Although most modern supercomputers use the Linux operating system, each manufacturer has made its own specific changes to the Linux-derivative they use, and no industry standard exists, partly because the differences in hardware architectures require changes to optimize the operating system to each hardware design.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
MiniD
The MiniD (has been renamed Croc) programming language is a small, lightweight, extension language in the vein of Lua or Squirrel, but designed to be used mainly with the D programming language. It supports both object-oriented and imperative programming paradigms, as well as some simple functional aspects. Distributed under the licence of zlib/libpng, MiniD is free software.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
3D Interaction
In computing, 3D interaction is a form of human-machine interaction where users are able to move and perform interaction in 3D space. Both human and machine process information where the physical position of elements in the 3D space is relevant. The 3D space used for interaction can be the real physical space, a virtual space representation simulated in the computer, or a combination of both. When the real space is used for data input, humans perform actions or give commands to the machine using an input device that detects the 3D position of the human action. When it is used for data output, the simulated 3D virtual scene is projected onto the real environment through one output device or a combination of them.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Programming/2 BeanShell
You can write your scrips using the BeanShell. Edit a file, save it with the extension ".bsh" The program will be executed by pressing (press [F8]). Text output will go to "BeanShell" (a window below the main editor). See  BeanShell article to read more about this scripting language. This manual is provided here for your convenience. The manual below is based on these external resources. This document is about BeanShell. BeanShell is a small, free, embeddable Java source interpreter with object scripting language features, written in Java. BeanShell executes standard Java statements and expressions but also extends Java into the scripting domain with common scripting language conventions and syntax. BeanShell is a natural scripting language for Java. Traditionally, the primary difference between a scripting language and a compiled language has been in its type system: the way in which you define and use data elements. You might be thinking that there is a more obvious difference here - that of "interpreted" code vs. compiled code. But the compiler in and of itself does not fundamentally change the way you work with a language. Nor does interpreting a language necessarily make it more useful for what we think of as "scripting". It is the type system of a language that makes it possible for a compiler to analyze the structure of an application for correctness. Without types, compilation is reduced to just a grammar check and an optimization for speed. From the developer's perspective, it is also the type system that characterizes the way in which we interact with the code. Types are good. Without strongly type languages it would be very hard to write large scale systems and make any assertions about their correctness before they are run. But working with types imposes a burden on the developer. Types are labels and labeling things can be tedious. It can be especially tedious during certain kinds of development or special applications where it is flexibility and not program structure that is paramount. There are times where simplicity and ease of use is a more important criterion. This is not just rationalization to cover some underlying laziness. Productivity affects what people do and more importantly do *not* do in the real world, much more than you might think. There is a lot of important software that exists in the world today only because the cost/benefit ratio in some developer's mind reached a certain threshold. Unit testing - one of the foundations of writing good code - is a prime example. Unit tests for well written code are, in general, vitally important as a collective but almost insignificant individually. It's a "tragedy of the commons" that leads individual developers to repeatedly weigh the importance of writing another unit test with working on "real code". Give developers have a tool that makes it easy to perform a test with a line or two of code they will probably use it. If, moreover, it is also a tool that they enjoy using during their development process - that saves the time, they will be even more inclined to use it. Customizability through scripting also opens the door to applications that are more powerful than the sum of their parts. When users can extend, enhance, and add to their applications they use them in new and unexpected ways. Scripting is powerful. Traditionally scripting languages have traded in the power of types for simplicity. Most scripting languages distill the type system to just one or a handful of types such as strings, numbers, or simple lists. This is sufficient for many kinds of scripting. Many scripting languages operate in a loose, unstructured land - a place dominated by text and course-grained tools. As such these scripting languages have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for working with these simple types (regular expressions, pipes, etc.). As a result there has developed a casm between the scripting languages and the application languages created by the collapse of the type system in-between. The scripting languages have remained a separate species, isolated and speaking a different dialect from their brothers the application languages. BeanShell is a new kind of scripting language. BeanShell begins with the standard Java language and bridges it into the scripting domain in a natural way, but allowing the developer to relaxing types where appropriate. It is possible to write BeanShell scripts that look exactly like Java method code. But it's also possible to write scripts that look more like a traditional scripting language, while still maintaining the framework of the Java syntax. BeanShell emulates typed variables and parameters when they are used. This allows you to "seed" your code with strong types where appropriate. You can "shore up" repeatedly used methods as you work on them, migrating them closer to Java. Eventually you may find that you want to compile these methods and maintain them in standard Java. With BeanShell this is easy. BeanShell does not impose a syntactic boundary between your scripts and Java. But the bridge to Java extends much deeper than simple code similarity. BeanShell is one of a new breed of scripting languages made possible by Java's advanced reflection capabilities. Since BeanShell can run in the same Java virtual machine as your application, you can freely work with real, live, Java objects - passing them into and out of your scripts. Combined with BeanShell's ability to implement Java interfaces, you can achieve seamless and simple integration of scripting into your Java applications. BeanShell does not impose a type boundary between your scripts and Java.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Culture in Strategic Decisions
Strategic decisions are the resolutions which concern the environment in which a firm operates, the resources and the people who form the firm, and the interaction between these. Cultural logic refers to the understanding of a culture’s fundamental beliefs, the ways that those beliefs interact with each other by generating new information, and with the perceived desirability of alternative actions. This is how people from diverse cultures interact and are understood by these certain activities. Persuasive communication is one of many useful behavioral strategies people when they wish to impact people from different cultures. In terms of strategic decisions, these can be influenced by multiple factors and variables according to one's culture, due to distinct ways to transmit ideas and interpreting messages. Therefore, its formulation and implementation will differ from one to another. Norms, values, and premises reflect in the informal system that emerge with the company as it expands. They are reflected as well in the arrangements of the organization which include formal management systems (measurement and reward systems, information systems, planning systems, training systems, etc.) and policies that justify events and situations.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
OpenJ9
Eclipse OpenJ9 (previously known as IBM J9) is a high performance, scalable, Java virtual machine (JVM) implementation that is fully compliant with the Java Virtual Machine Specification. OpenJ9 can be built from source, or can be used with prebuilt binaries available at the AdoptOpenJDK project for a number of platforms including Linux and Windows. OpenJ9 is also a core component of the IBM developer kit, which is embedded in many IBM middleware products, including WebSphere Application Server and Websphere Liberty. OpenJ9 is also a component of Open Liberty. Extensive configuration options ensure that the JVM can be tuned to satisfy the requirements of a wide range of Java applications, from complex enterprise applications that run on mainframe hardware to short-lived applications that run on container-based cloud services.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Word Lists by Frequency
Word lists by frequency are lists of a language's words grouped by frequency of occurrence within some given text corpus, either by levels or as a ranked list, serving the purpose of vocabulary acquisition. A word list by frequency "provides a rational basis for making sure that learners get the best return for their vocabulary learning effort" (Nation 1997), but is mainly intended for course writers, not directly for learners. Frequency lists are also made for lexicographical purposes, serving as a sort of checklist to ensure that common words are not left out. Some major pitfalls are the corpus content, the corpus register, and the definition of "word". While word counting is a thousand years old, with still gigantic analysis done by hand in the mid-20th century, natural language electronic processing of large corpora such as movie subtitles (SUBTLEX megastudy) has accelerated the research field. In computational linguistics, a frequency list is a sorted list of words (word types) together with their frequency, where frequency here usually means the number of occurrences in a given corpus, from which the rank can be derived as the position in the list.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Track Warrant
Track warrants are systematized permissions used on some railroad lines to authorize a train's use of the main line. Dispatchers issue these permissions to train crews instead of using signals. The crews receive track warrants by radio, phone, or electronic transmission from a dispatcher.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Apple Network Server
The Apple Network Server (ANS) was a line of PowerPC-based server computers designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from February 1996 to April 1997. It was codenamed "Shiner" and originally consisted of two models, the Network Server 500/132 ("Shiner LE", i.e., "low-end") and the Network Server 700/150 ("Shiner HE", i.e., "high-end"), which got a companion model, the Network Server 700/200 (also "Shiner HE") with a faster CPU in November 1996. The machines were not a part of the Apple Macintosh line of computers; they were designed to run IBM's AIX operating system and their ROM specifically prevented booting the classic Mac OS. This makes them the last non-Macintosh desktop computers made by Apple to date. The 500/132, 700/150, and 97 sold in the U.S. market for $11,000, $15,000 and $19,000, respectively. Apple Network Servers are not to be confused with the Apple Workgroup Servers and the Macintosh Servers, which were Macintosh workstations that shipped with server software and used Mac OS; the sole exception, the Workgroup Server 95—a Quadra 950 with an added SCSI controller that shipped with A/UX—was also capable of running Mac OS. Apple did not have comparable server hardware in their product lineup again until the introduction of the Xserve in 2002. The product's short lifespan is attributed to significant financial troubles at Apple in early 1997. CEO Gil Amelio cancelled both Network Server and OpenDoc in the same meeting as it was determined that they were low priorities.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
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