Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
Xylose Metabolism in Bacteria
Some wild-type and genetically modified bacteria can metabolize xylose through three different main pathways of metabolism: xylose isomerase pathway, oxidoreductase pathway, and non-phosphorylative pathway (including Weimberg and Dahms pathways). Two of the commercially interesting intermediates of these pathways are xylitol and xylonic acid, which can accumulate in the medium either through manipulation of the culture conditions or through genetic modification of the bacteria.
28 Sep 2021
Workplace Respirator Testing
Respirators, also known as respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or respiratory protective devices (RPD), are used in some workplaces to protect workers from air contaminants. Initially, respirator effectiveness was tested in laboratories, but in the late 1960s it was found that these tests gave misleading results regarding the level of protection provided. In the 1970s, workplace-based respirator testing became routine in industrialized countries, leading to a dramatic reduction in the claimed efficacy of many respirator types and new guidelines on how to select the appropriate respirator for a given environment.
12 Oct 2022
Wavelet Scattering Transform
A knowledge-based feature extraction technique has been developed by Bruna and Malat named wavelet scattering transform (WST), which utilizes complex wavelets to balance the discrimination ability and stability of the time-frequency domain signal.
09 Dec 2022
Waste-to-Energy Technologies for Slum/Informal Settlements in Nigeria
Slum/informal settlements are an integral part of a city, with a population projected to reach 3 billion by 2030. It is also expected that the rate of waste generation will more than triple by 2050 in the cities of low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa. At this rate, the risk to the environment and health of inhabitants are enormous, because the current waste management practices are not guided by legislation on proper use and disposal.
21 Jun 2022
Waste Natural Polymers
Waste natural polymers have received much attention as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and low-cost filler in polymer composites. In order to exploit the high potential for residual natural loading in latex composites, different types of surface modification techniques have been applied. This review discusses the preparation and characterization of the modified waste natural fillers for latex-based composites. The potency of the waste natural filler for the latex-based composites was explored with a focus on the mechanical, thermal, biodegradability and filler–latex interaction.
12 Nov 2021
Waste Heat Recovery Technologies Revisited with New Solutions
Waste heat recovery (WHR) has been a challenge for industries, as it can lead to energy savings, higher energy efficiency, and sustainability. WHR technologies are usually classified based on the output provided, namely heat recovery (HR) or heat-to-power (H2P) conversion.
18 Jan 2022
Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Variants
The VRP solution revolves around finding a route plan, that is, a set of routes associated with a fleet of vehicles, which implies low costs associated with time, fuel, total distance traveled, and labor charges.
31 May 2022
UX in AR-Supported Industrial Human–Robot Collaborative Tasks
The fourth industrial revolution is promoting the Operator 4.0 paradigm, originating from a renovated attention towards human factors, growingly involved in the design of modern, human-centered processes. New technologies, such as augmented reality or collaborative robotics are thus increasingly studied and progressively applied to solve the modern operators’ needs. Human-centered design approaches can help to identify user’s needs and functional requirements, solving usability issues, or reducing cognitive or physical stress.
14 Jan 2022
Updated Principles of Sustainable Engineering
Sustainable engineering refers to the integration of social, environmental, and economic considerations into product, process, and energy system design methods. Additionally, sustainable engineering encourages the consideration of the complete product and process lifecycle during the design effort.
24 Jun 2022
Unmanned Ground Vehicles
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) have great potential in the application of both civilian and military fields, and have become the focus of research in many countries. Environmental perception technology is the foundation of UGVs, which is of great significance to achieve a safer and more efficient performance.
22 Feb 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
Log in/Sign up
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)