Topic Review
Industry 4.0 and Sustainability
Sustainability and Industry 4.0 (I4.0) are trending concepts used in the literature on industrial processes. Industry 4.0 has been mainly addressed by the current literature from a technological perspective, overlooking sustainability challenges regarding this recent paradigm. The objective of this encyclopedia entry is to evaluate the state of the art of relations between sustainability and I4.0. The goal will be met by (1) mapping and summarizing existing research efforts, (2) identifying research agendas, (3) examining gaps and opportunities for further research. Web of Science, Scopus, and a set of specific keywords were used to select peer-reviewed papers presenting evidence on the relationship between sustainability and I4.0. To achieve this goal, it was decided to use a dynamic methodology called “systematic literature network analysis”. This methodology combines a systematic literature review approach with the analysis of bibliographic networks. Selected papers were used to build a reference framework formed by I4.0 technologies and sustainability issues. The encyclopedia entry contributes to the Sustainable Industry 4.0 reference framework with application procedures. It aims to show how I4.0 can support ideas of sustainability. The results showed that apart from a huge contribution to both concepts, many papers do not provide an insight into realization of initiatives to introduce Sustainable Industry 4.0.
  • 4048
  • 06 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Abrasive Water-Jet Machining
Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is a very useful non-conventional machining for the cutting of dissimilar materials at once. It is a flexible process that generates low thermal damage to the machined surface as there is no continuous tool-material con- tact along the machining process. Compared to conventional processes such as milling, abrasive particles are used in water jet machining. These particles have cutting edges that allow the machining of the material by overlapping of small impacts that deform the material. At each instant, a quantity of abrasive particles travels in the water jet in order to perform the cut.
  • 3784
  • 24 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Double-sided lapping
Double-sided lapping is an ultra-precision manufacturing process used for fabricating wafers, thin substrates, metal slice parts, etc. to achieve high surface integrity, flatness and parallelism. It can be divided into double-sided lapping with loose abrasives and fixed abrasives.
  • 2037
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Emerging Technologies
According to G. Veletsianos, from a general point of view, an emerging technology is “a new tool with promising potential”. However, an emerging technology is generally defined according to the field in which it is analyzed. B.R. Martin describes an emerging technology as a technology the use of which will benefit many sectors of the economy and/or society. Other important characteristics of emerging technology, according to D. Rotolo, D. Hicks and B. R. Martin, include radical novelty, relatively fast growth, coherence, and prominent impact. Which refers to the crucial following contexts: aspect of future time, anticipation, uncertainty and Industry 4.0. the following definition of an emerging technology has been created by the author – „Emerging technology in Industry 4.0 is a technology the development of which, from today’s point of view, is uncertain and not obvious, but through complex anticipatory research, it is possible to identify its potential radical impact in selected areas, e.g., social, technological, economic, scientific.”
  • 1787
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Digital twins in pharmaceutical manufacturing
The development and application of emerging technologies of Industry 4.0 enable the realization of digital twins (DT), which facilitates the transformation of the manufacturing sector to a more agile and intelligent one. DTs are virtual constructs of physical systems that mirror the behavior and dynamics of such physical systems. A fully developed DT consists of physical components, virtual components, and information communications between the two. Integrated DTs are being applied in various processes and product industries. Although the pharmaceutical industry has evolved recently to adopt Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives and is undergoing a paradigm shift of digitalization to embrace Industry 4.0, there has not been a full DT application in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the progress of the pharmaceutical industry towards implementing DT solutions. The aim of this entry is to give an overview of the current status of DT development and its application in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. State-of-the-art Process Analytical Technology (PAT) developments, process modeling approaches, and data integration studies are reviewed. Challenges and opportunities for future research in this field are also discussed.
  • 1626
  • 09 Mar 2022
Topic Review
COTS-Based Architectural Framework
This research tackles issues such as the reliability and efficiency of real-time control systems based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. A strong emphasis is placed on finding novel efficient solutions based on standardized and commercially available off-the-shelf hardware/software components. In this direction, this research applies credible and feasible methodologies (e.g., model-based design, component-based design, formal verification, real-time scheduling, prototyping, and validation) in an innovative enhanced way. As an important outcome, a versatile integrative design approach and architectural framework (VIDAF) is proposed, which supports the development and implementation of reliable real-time control systems and applications using commercial off-the-shelf components. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed system’s architecture are evaluated and validated through a system application in embedded real-time control in manufacturing. The research outcomes are expected to have a positive impact on emerging areas such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).
  • 1370
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Digital Twin: Origin to Future
Digital Twin (DT) refers to the virtual copy or model of any physical entity (physical twin) both of which are interconnected via exchange of data in real time. Conceptually, a DT mimics the state of its physical twin in real time and vice versa. Application of DT includes real-time monitoring, designing/planning, optimization, maintenance, remote access, etc. Its implementation is expected to grow exponentially in the coming decades. The advent of Industry 4.0 has brought complex industrial systems that are more autonomous, smart, and highly interconnected. These systems generate considerable amounts of data useful for several applications such as improving performance, predictive maintenance, training, etc. A sudden influx in the number of publications related to ‘Digital Twin’ has led to confusion between different terminologies related to the digitalization of industries. Another problem that has arisen due to the growing popularity of DT is a lack of consensus on the description of DT as well as so many different types of DT, which adds to the confusion. This paper intends to consolidate the different types of DT and different definitions of DT throughout the literature for easy identification of DT from the rest of the complimentary terms such as ‘product avatar’, ‘digital thread’, ‘digital model’, and ‘digital shadow’. The paper looks at the concept of DT since its inception to its predicted future to realize the value it can bring to certain sectors. Understanding the characteristics and types of DT while weighing its pros and cons is essential for any researcher, business, or sector before investing in the technology.
  • 1287
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Green Lean Six Sigma Approach
Green lean six sigma (GLSS) is an emerging approach towards environmental sustainability in conjunction with operational achievements. The success of this approach is premised on an understanding of the different components of a GLSS program; being the determinants for its outcomes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the various constructs of GLSS that play an essential role in achieving environmental sustainability. For this purpose, a systematic review of available literature has been conducted to evaluate the drivers, enablers (tools), and outcomes of a GLSS strategy as well as its critical success factors and barriers. Findings reveal that these constructs of GLSS as a holistic approach can facilitate an organization to better accomplish environmental objectives such as waste minimization, emission reduction, and resource conservation as compared to constructs of only one or any two of these strategies. Based on the analysis, an integrated GLSS framework is developed for environmental sustainability in addition to identifying vital research gaps and future directions.
  • 1205
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Magnetic Fields in Food Processing
Magnetic fields (MF) are increasingly being applied in food processing to preserve food quality. They can be static (SMF), oscillating (OMF) or pulsed (PMF) depending on the type of equipment. The food characteristics can be influenced by several configurations of the applied magnetic field as its flux density, frequency, polarity, and exposure time. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effects of magnetic fields on foods. Some of them propose interactions at the subatomic particle level that show quantum behavior, such as the radical pair and cyclotron resonance mechanisms. Other proposals are at the level of DNA, compounds, subcellular organelles, and cells.  The interactions between food and magnetic fields are addressed in a general way in this work, highlighting the applications and action model
  • 1168
  • 23 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Fly Ash
Fly ash or coal fly ash causes major global pollution in the form of solid waste and is classified as a “hazardous waste”, which is a by-product of thermal power plants produced during electricity production. Si, Al, Fe Ca, and Mg alone form more than 85% of the chemical compounds and glasses of most fly ashes. Fly ash has a chemical composition of 70–90%, as well as glasses of ferrous, alumina, silica, and CaO. Therefore, fly ash could act as a reliable and alternative source for ferrous, alumina, and silica. The ferrous fractions can be recovered by a simple magnetic separation method, while alumina and silica can be extracted by chemical or biological approaches. Alumina extraction is possible using both alkali- and acid-based methods, while silica is extracted by strong alkali, such as NaOH. Chemical extraction has a higher yield than the biological approaches, but the bio-based approaches are more environmentally friendly. Fly ash can also be used for the synthesis of zeolites by NaOH treatment of variable types, as fly ash is rich in alumino-silicates. The present review work deals with the recent advances in the field of the recovery and synthesis of ferrous, alumina, and silica micro and nanoparticles from fly ash.
  • 1144
  • 06 Apr 2021
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