Topic Review
AI Public Datasets for Railway Applications
The aim of this entry is to review existing publicly available and open artificial intelligence (AI) oriented datasets in different domains and subdomains of the railway sector. The contribution of this paper is an overview of AI-oriented railway data published under Creative Commons (CC) or any other copyright type that entails public availability and freedom of use. These data are of great value for open research and publications related to the application of AI in the railway sector.
  • 538
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Air Displacement Pipette
Piston-driven air displacement pipettes are a type of micropipette, which are tools to handle volumes of liquid in the microliter scale. They are more commonly used in biology and biochemistry, and less commonly in chemistry; the equipment is susceptible to damage from many organic solvents.
  • 111
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Anaesthetic Vaporizer
An anaesthetic vaporizer is a device generally attached to an anaesthetic machine which delivers a given concentration of a volatile anaesthetic agent. It works by controlling the vaporisation of anaesthetic agents from liquid, and then accurately controlling the concentration in which these are added to the fresh gas flow. The design of these devices takes account of varying: ambient temperature, fresh gas flow, and agent vapour pressure.
  • 48
  • 09 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Analysis of Tehran’s Air Pollution
Air pollution is one of the major issues in urban management. Researchers proposes a simulated model of the pollution level of the capital city of Tehran along with its source and outcomes based on system dynamics. 
  • 183
  • 28 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Apple Cider Sensory
Apple cider and pear cider are defined as alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content between 1.2% and 8.5% (low-alcohol cider may have less than 1.2%) obtained by partial or complete fermentation of juice (fresh or reconstituted), with or without the addition of sugar, water or flavouring.
  • 667
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Application of Two-fluid Mode
In two-fluid model (TFM), the granular flows are modeled as continuous fluid flows. The random motions of particles resulting from the interactive collisions of particles has a dominant effect on the flow behavior. The granular interactions are commonly modeled based on the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF). 
  • 154
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Architecture and Challenges of Industrial Internet of Things
The inherent complexities of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architecture make its security and privacy issues becoming critically challenging. Numerous surveys have been published to review IoT security issues and challenges. The studies gave a general overview of IIoT security threats or a detailed analysis that explicitly focuses on specific technologies. However, recent studies fail to analyze the gap between security requirements of these technologies and their deployed countermeasure in the industry recently. Whether recent industry countermeasure is still adequate to address the security challenges of IIoT environment are questionable.
  • 1449
  • 21 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Autonomous Haulage Systems
Mining is an industry that inherits the full advantage of Industry 4.0 by using cutting-edge driverless vehicles called Autonomous Haulage Systems (AHS) or Autonomous Haulage Trucks (AHT). These trucks can carry up to four hundred tons of ore and accurately transport it without human interaction. AHS is the state-of-the-art in the mining industry for autonomous vehicles.
  • 627
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Available Sampling Methods for Plastic Waste
Given the rapid development of plastics recycling in recent years, the need for guidelines for sampling and material characterization is steadily emerging. However, there still exists a considerable scarcity of methods that enable proper material data acquisition. It was found that neither the literature nor the standards provide a comprehensive practice that considers the distinctive characteristics of plastic waste and applies it to different situations along the value chain. Two variants of the proposed plan were evaluated based on the flake size distribution and the apparent density of four different pretreated polyolefin (PO) waste materials. Combining stratified random sampling with composite sampling yields a good sampling technique for rigid PO waste. Moreover, the analysis of a composite sample adequately conveys the true material properties of a sublot or lot.
  • 105
  • 31 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Be-Al Alloy
Be-Al alloy is a type of in situ metal matrix composite composed of a primary Be phase for strength and stiffness and a continuous Al matrix for ductility and toughness. Be-Al alloy  has the characteristics of low density (2.1-2.2 g/cm3), high elastic modulus (>170 GPa) and specific stiffness (>88 GPa/(g/cm3)) as a preferred material for lightweight aerospace products.
  • 145
  • 05 Sep 2022
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