Topic Review
Versatile Electronics for Microwave Holographic RADAR
The NATO SPS G-5014 project has shown the possibility of using a holographic RADAR for the detection of anti-personnel mines. To use the RADAR on a robotic scanning system, it must be portable, light, easily integrated with mechanical handling systems and configurable in its operating parameters for optimal performance on different terrains. The novel contribution is to use software programmable electronics to optimize performance and to use a time reference to obtain synchronization between the RADAR samples and the position in space, in order to make it easy to integrate the RADAR on robotic platforms. 
  • 4
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
E-Book
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are increasingly browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online; the paper books are then delivered to the reader by mail or another delivery service. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, and then when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book. By the early 2010s, e-books had begun to overtake hardcover by overall publication figures in the U.S. The main reasons for people buying e-books are possibly lower prices, increased comfort (as they can buy from home or on the go with mobile devices) and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "[e]lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, and e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is especially suited for e-book delivery because it can be [electronically] searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied. The amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U.S.; by 2014, 28% of adults had read an e-book, compared to 23% in 2013. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013.
  • 13
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Delay Defects in Nanoscale Digital VLSI Circuits
As technology scales down, digital VLSI (very large-scale integration) circuits are prone to many manufacturing defects. These defects may result in functional and delay-related circuit failures. The number of test escapes grows when technology is downscaled. Small delay defects (SDDs) and hidden delay defects (HDDs) are of critical importance in industries since they are the source of most test escapes and reliability problems.
  • 15
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Digital Protective Relay
In utility and industrial electric power transmission and distribution systems, a digital protective relay is a computer-based system with software-based protection algorithms for the detection of electrical faults. Such relays are also termed as microprocessor type protective relays. They are functional replacements for electro-mechanical protective relays and may include many protection functions in one unit, as well as providing metering, communication, and self-test functions.
  • 6
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Oculus VR
Oculus is a brand of Facebook Technologies, LLC, a subsidiary of Facebook Inc. Founded by Palmer Luckey, Brendan Iribe, Michael Antonov and Nate Mitchell in July 2012 in Irvine, California, now based in Menlo Park. It specializes in virtual reality hardware and software products. In April 2012, Luckey announced the Rift, a virtual reality headset designed for video gaming, and launched a Kickstarter campaign in August to make virtual reality headsets available to developers. The campaign proved successful and raised $2.4 million, ten times the original goal of $250,000. Two pre-production models were released to developers; the Oculus VR DK1 (Development Kit 1) and Oculus VR DK2 (Development Kit 2). The consumer product was released on March 28, 2016 with an all-new design incorporating specialized VR displays, positional audio, and infrared tracking system. In March 2014, Facebook, Inc. acquired Oculus for United States dollar 2.3 billion in cash and stock. In 2015, Oculus acquired Surreal Vision, a British startup focused on 3D reconstruction and mixed reality, stating that it could be possible for Oculus to develop products with the concept of telepresence. The company partnered with Samsung to develop the Samsung Gear VR in November 2015 for the Samsung Galaxy smartphones. Zuckerberg would like to have 1 billion virtual reality headsets in consumers' hands. In June 2019 Oculus announced it sold $5 million worth of content for the Oculus Quest in just 2 weeks.
  • 19
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Free-Carrier-Depletion-Based Phase Shifter
Free-carrier-dispersion-based phase shifters are favored in the field of telecommunications and data centers due to their high modulation speed and low power consumption. Based on the working mechanism, free-carrier-dispersion-based phase shifters fall into three categories: carrier injection, carrier depletion, and carrier accumulation.
  • 8
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Recent Trends in Copper Metallization
The Cu/low-k damascene process was introduced to alleviate the increase in the RC delay of Al/SiO2 interconnects, but now that the technology generation has reached 1× nm or lower, a number of limitations have become apparent. Due to the integration limit of low-k materials, the increase in the RC delay due to scaling can only be suppressed through metallization.
  • 13
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Selection of OCV–SOC Model for Battery Management Systems
A battery management system (BMS) plays a crucial role to ensure the safety, efficiency, and reliability of a rechargeable Li-ion battery pack. State of charge (SOC) estimation is an important operation within a BMS. Estimated SOC is required in several BMS operations, such as remaining power and mileage estimation, battery capacity estimation, charge termination, and cell balancing. The open circuit voltage (OCV) model needs to be stored within the battery management system for real-time SOC estimation. The selection, storage, and processing of OCV models involve several design constraints.
  • 13
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain-Enabled Smart Grid Applications
The conventional electrical grid is undergoing substantial growth for reliable grid operation and for more efficient and sustainable energy use. The traditional grid is now metamorphosing into a smart grid (SG) that incorporates a diverse, heterogeneous blend of operating measures such as smart appliances, meters, and renewable energy resources. With better efficient results and dependability, the SG can be described as a modern electric power grid architecture. The SG is one of the greatest potential advances as a promising solution for the energy crisis. However, it is complex and its decentralization could be of tremendous benefit. Moreover, digitalization and integration of a large number of growing connections make it a target of cyber-attacks. In this sense, blockchain is a promising SG paradigm solution that offers several excellent features. There has been considerable effort put into using blockchains in the smart grid for its decentralization and enhanced cybersecurity; however, it has not been thoroughly studied in both application and architectural perspectives. An in-depth study was conducted on blockchain-enabled SG applications. Blockchain architectures for various applications, such as the synchrophasor applications, electric vehicles, energy management systems, etc., were proposed. 
  • 22
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Plasmonic Circuitry
Plasmonics is the study of plasmons, quasiparticles of plasma oscillation in solids such as metals, semi-metals, metal oxides, nitrides, doped semiconductors, etc. An effort is currently being made to implement plasmons in electric circuits, or in an electric circuit analog, to combine the size efficiency of electronics with the data capacity of photonic integrated circuits. Plasmonics can be understood as "light-on-metal-dielectric-interfaces," where electrons oscillate at the surface of a metal due to strong resonant interactions with the electric field of incident light. Due to the high scattering rate of electrons, ohmic losses in plasmonic signals are generally large, which limits the signal transfer distances to the sub-centimeter range, unless hybrid optoplasmonic light guiding networks, or plasmon gain amplification are used. Both surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the metal-dielectric interfaces and localized surface plasmon modes supported by metal nanoparticles are characterized by large momentum values, which enable strong resonant enhancement of the local density of photon states, and can be utilized to enhance weak optical effects of opto-electronic devices.
  • 10
  • 27 Sep 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 47
Top
Feedback