Topic Review
Sensors for Health Monitoring
The use of wearable equipment and sensing devices to monitor physical activities, whether for well-being, sports monitoring, or medical rehabilitation, has expanded rapidly due to the evolution of sensing techniques, cheaper integrated circuits, and the development of connectivity technologies. In this scenario, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of sensors and systems for rehabilitation and health monitoring. Although we know the increasing importance of data processing techniques, our focus was on analyzing the implementation of sensors and biomedical applications. Although many themes overlap, we organized this review based on three groups: Sensors in Healthcare, Home Medical Assistance, and Continuous Health Monitoring; Systems and Sensors in Physical Rehabilitation; and Assistive Systems.
  • 6973
  • 19 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Luffa Natural Fiber Composites
Natural fiber composites (NFCs) are an evolving area in polymer sciences. Fibers extracted from natural sources hold a wide set of advantages such as negligible cost, significant mechanical characteristics, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, environmental friendliness, recyclability, etc. Luffa cylindrica, also termed luffa gourd or luffa sponge, is a natural fiber that has a solid potential to replace synthetic fibers in composite materials in diverse applications like vibration isolation, sound absorption, packaging, etc. Recently, many researches have involved luffa fibers as a reinforcement in the development of NFC, aiming to investigate their performance in selected matrices as well as the behavior of the end NFC.
  • 1290
  • 25 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Digital twins in pharmaceutical manufacturing
The development and application of emerging technologies of Industry 4.0 enable the realization of digital twins (DT), which facilitates the transformation of the manufacturing sector to a more agile and intelligent one. DTs are virtual constructs of physical systems that mirror the behavior and dynamics of such physical systems. A fully developed DT consists of physical components, virtual components, and information communications between the two. Integrated DTs are being applied in various processes and product industries. Although the pharmaceutical industry has evolved recently to adopt Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives and is undergoing a paradigm shift of digitalization to embrace Industry 4.0, there has not been a full DT application in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the progress of the pharmaceutical industry towards implementing DT solutions. The aim of this entry is to give an overview of the current status of DT development and its application in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. State-of-the-art Process Analytical Technology (PAT) developments, process modeling approaches, and data integration studies are reviewed. Challenges and opportunities for future research in this field are also discussed.
  • 1290
  • 09 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Colorimetric Sensors
Colorimetric analysis has become of great importance in recent years to improve the operationalization of plasmonic-based biosensors. The unique properties of nanomaterials have enabled the development of a variety of plasmonics applications on the basis of the colorimetric sensing provided by metal nanoparticles. In particular, the extinction of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the visible range has permitted the exploitation of LSPR colorimetric-based biosensors as powerful tools for clinical diagnostics and drug monitoring. This review summarizes recent progress in the biochemical monitoring of clinical biomarkers by ultrasensitive plasmonic colorimetric strategies according to the distance- or the morphology/size-dependent sensing modes. Colorimetric analysis has become of great importance in recent years to improve the operationalization of plasmonic-based biosensors. The unique properties of nanomaterials have enabled the development of a variety of plasmonics applications on the basis of the colorimetric sensing provided by metal nanoparticles. In particular, the extinction of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the visible range has permitted the exploitation of LSPR colorimetric-based biosensors as powerful tools for clinical diagnostics and drug monitoring. This review summarizes recent progress in the biochemical monitoring of clinical biomarkers by ultrasensitive plasmonic colorimetric strategies according to the distance- or the morphology/size-dependent sensing modes. 
  • 1278
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Sesquiterpene Lactones
Sesquiterpene lactones, a vast group of terpenoids isolated from Asteraceae family species, exhibit a wide variety of biological activities and several of them are already available on the medicines market, such as artemisinin. Here are presented and discussed the most recent and impactful results in vivo, preclinical and clinical studies, involving a selection of ten sesquiterpene lactones (alantolactone, arglabin, costunolide, cynaropicrin, helenalin, inuviscolide, lactucin, parthenolide, thapsigargin and tomentosin) and some of their derivatives.
  • 1181
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Capillary-Driven Flow Microfluidics
Point-of-care (POC) or near-patient testing allows clinicians to accurately achieve real-time diagnostic results performed at or near to the patient site. The outlook of POC devices is to provide quicker analyses that can lead to well-informed clinical decisions and hence improve the health of patients at the point-of-need. Microfluidics plays an important role in the development of POC devices. However, requirements of handling expertise, pumping systems and complex fluidic controls make the technology unaffordable to the current healthcare systems in the world. In recent years, capillary-driven flow microfluidics has emerged as an attractive microfluidic-based technology to overcome these limitations by offering robust, cost-effective and simple-to-operate devices. The internal wall of the microchannels can be pre-coated with reagents, and by merely dipping the device into the patient sample, the sample can be loaded into the microchannel driven by capillary forces and can be detected via handheld or smartphone-based detectors. The capabilities of capillary-driven flow devices have not been fully exploited in developing POC diagnostics, especially for antimicrobial resistance studies in clinical settings. The purpose of this review is to open up this field of microfluidics to the ever-expanding microfluidic-based scientific community.
  • 1146
  • 24 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Advanced Bioengineered Skin Equivalents
The formation of severe scars still represents the result of the closure process of extended and deep skin wounds. To address this issue, different bioengineered skin substitutes have been developed but a general consensus regarding their effectiveness has not been achieved yet. It will be shown that bioengineered skin substitutes, although representing a valid alternative to autografting, induce skin cells in repairing the wound rather than guiding a regeneration process. Repaired skin differs from regenerated skin, showing high contracture, loss of sensitivity, impaired pigmentation and absence of cutaneous adnexa (i.e., hair follicles and sweat glands). This leads to significant mobility and aesthetic concerns, making the development of more effective bioengineered skin models a current need. The objective of this review is to determine the limitations of either commercially available or investigational bioengineered skin substitutes and how advanced skin tissue engineering strategies can be improved in order to completely restore skin functions after severe wounds.
  • 1060
  • 30 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Wearable Stretch Sensors
Wearable sensors are beneficial for continuous health monitoring, movement analysis, rehabilitation, evaluation of human performance. Wearable stretch sensors are increasingly being used for human movement monitoring. The content presented provides a review of wearable stretch sensors as well the design, development and validation of a wearable soft-robotic-stretch sensors. 
  • 1017
  • 25 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Current Applications of Membrane Bioreactors
A membrane bioreactor (MBR) can be described as a chamber designed for a biochemical transformation combined with a membrane separation process. The membrane can be used for different purposes inside the bioreactor, such as the addition of a reactant or the selective removal of one of the reaction products. Moreover, membranes can be utilized to retain the biocatalyst or act as the support for the biocatalyst or for the separation of enzymes by size exclusion.
  • 1005
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Human Emotion Recognition
Automated emotion recognition (AEE) is important issue in the various field of activities, which uses human emotional reaction as a signal for marketing, technical equipment or human-robot interaction. Paper analyzes vast layer of scientific research and technical papers for sensor use analysis, where various methods implemented or researched. Paper cover few classes of sensors, using contactless methods, contact and skin-penetrating electrodes with for human emotion detection and measurement of their intensity. Result of performed analysis in this paper presented applicable methods for each type of emotions or their intensity and proposed their classification. Provided classification of emotion sensors revealed area of application and expected outcome from each method as well as noticed limitation of them. This paper should be interested for researchers, needed to use of human emotion evaluation and analysis, when there is a need to choose proper method for their purposes or find alternative decision.
  • 896
  • 27 Jan 2021
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