Topic Review
X 2000
X 2000, also called SJ X2 or simply as X2, is a tilting train operated by SJ in Sweden. It was constructed by Kalmar Verkstad in Kalmar, Sweden (prior to the company being bought by Adtranz in 1996) and launched in 1990 as a first-class only train with a meal included in the ticket price, and free use of the train's fax machine. There is a bistro on board that serves snack bar-style dishes. From 1995 second class was introduced. All trains are equipped with Wi-Fi for passenger access to the Internet and were repainted grey as of 2005. The trains also have electric power supply sockets at all seats in both first and second class. The trains have been fitted with repeaters to improve mobile phone reception. It has a top commercial speed of 200 km/h (120 mph), but has reached 276 km/h (171 mph) in a test. The reason the X2 was chosen was that Sweden (like most other countries) has very curved railways, and not enough traffic to justify building special high-speed railway lines (at least before 1990). As a result, a Swedish tilting train had to be developed. A tilting train provided the advantages of high speed and comfort for the passengers, as tilting trains can run through sharp (short radius or tight) curves up to 15% faster than non-tilting trains. The X2 was designed and built by ASEA (later ABB Asea Brown Boveri, Adtranz ABB Daimler Benz Transportation and now Bombardier Transportation). SJ ordered 20 trainsets in August 1986 and planned to order further 30 trainsets. However, this figure was later reduced to only 43 trainsets.
  • 8
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
The vehicular ad hoc network is an emerging area of technology that provides intelligent transportation systems with vast advantages and applications. Frequent disconnections between the vehicular nodes due to high-velocity vehicles impact network performance. 
  • 11
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Urban Electromobility
The growing need for electric energy is forcing the construction industry to greater integrate energy production systems based on renewable energy sources. The energy ought to be used not only to support functions of the building but also to charge electric vehicles, whose number has been increasing for the last few years.
  • 61
  • 19 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Transport Poverty in Chinese Cities
The widening income gap in post-reform China has given rise to social inequality. Among those, transport poverty and inequality have significantly affected the daily life of low-income groups. It was found that the most common causes of transport poverty include: a lack of access to private vehicles; uneven access to alternative transport options; inadequate public transport provision; jobs-housing imbalance; and the hukou system (a system of household registration which aims to regulate population distribution and rural-to-urban migration). The main impacts of transport poverty include: curtailed mobility and longer travel times; higher household expenditures on travel; reduced access to jobs and essential services; higher household expenditures on travel; and health and environmental issues.
  • 101
  • 18 May 2021
Topic Review
Traffic Flow Prediction
The accurate and effective prediction of the traffic flow of vehicles plays a significant role in the construction and planning of signalized road intersections. The application of artificially intelligent predictive models in the prediction of the performance of traffic flow has yielded positive results. However, much uncertainty still exists in the determination of which artificial intelligence methods effectively resolve traffic congestion issues, especially from the perspective of the traffic flow of vehicles at a four-way signalized road intersection.
  • 175
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Time-of-day Traffic Signal Control
Improperly scheduled signal timing plans are one of the main reasons for reduced efficiency of traffic signals at coordinated urban arterials. Time-of-day (TOD) traffic signal control is based on the principle where multiple TOD signal timing plans (STPs) are scheduled to operate during the day. TOD plans are characterized by a unique cycle length that is highly correlated with traffic volumes. The determination of characteristic periods during the day where certain signal timing plans should operate was primarily done using the 24 h volume plots from single intersection and engineering judgments. In cases where data availability is higher, the analytical methods that serve for the determination of robust TOD breakpoints were not in place.
  • 80
  • 27 Jun 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
The Role of GNSS-RTN in Transportation Applications
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a broader geographic region. Such systems can provide geospatial location data with centimeter-level accuracy anywhere within the network. Geospatial location services are not only used in measuring ground distances and mapping topography; they have also become vital in many other fields such as aerospace, aviation, natural disaster management, and agriculture, to name but a few. The innovative and multi-disciplinary applications of geospatial data drive technological advancement towards precise and accurate location services available in real-time. Although GNSS-RTN technology is currently utilized in a few industries such as precision farming, construction industry, and land surveying, the implications of precise real-time location services would be far-reaching and more critical to many advanced transportation applications. The GNSS-RTN technology is promising in meeting the needs of automation in most advanced transportation applications. This article presents an overview of the GNSS-RTN technology, its current applications in transportation-related fields, and a perspective on the future use of this technology in advanced transportation applications. 
  • 100
  • 05 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Sustainable Urban Mobility
Sustainable urban mobility is a term that refers to the use of means of transport that do not affect the environment and an approach to the planning of the development of urban areas with sustainability goals in mind. When creating sustainable urban mobility plans, planners must also have the number of inhabitants in urban areas in mind as well as the need to ensure a satisfactory transportation service for residents located in urban areas. In order to respond to the ever-increasing need to develop sustainable modes of transport, the importance of electric, autonomous, and electric autonomous vehicles is increasingly emphasized. In addition, as trends of growth and development in electric autonomous vehicle technology are increasing, one of the questions that has appeared is whether autonomous electric vehicles represent one of the mechanisms that will be used to increase the sustainability of urban mobility. 
  • 30
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Supply Chain and Digital Twins
The supply chains shaping their distribution networks become more diverse as companies respond to global markets’ stringent criteria. This is also counterproductive to the visibility of the supply chain within the company and can adversely affect the organization’s core business. 
  • 179
  • 21 May 2021
Topic Review
Spatial-Temporal Flows-Adaptive Street Layout Control Using Reinforcement Learning
This study proposes a novel optimal control method that decides the ROW of road space assigned to driveways and sidewalks in real-time. To solve this optimal control task, a reinforcement learning method is introduced that employs a microscopic traffic simulator, namely SUMO, as its environment. The model was trained for 150 episodes using a four-legged intersection and joint AVs-pedestrian travel demands of a day. Results evidenced the effectiveness of the model in both symmetric and asymmetric road settings. After being trained by 150 episodes, our proposed model significantly increased its comprehensive reward of both pedestrians and vehicular traffic efficiency and sidewalk ratio by 10.39%. Decisions on the balanced ROW are optimised as 90.16% of the edges decrease the driveways supply and raise sidewalk shares by approximately 9%. Moreover, during 18.22% of the tested time slots, a lane-width equivalent space is shifted from driveways to sidewalks, minimising the travel costs for both an AV fleet and pedestrians.
  • 125
  • 28 Dec 2021
  • Page
  • of
  • 9