Topic Review
3D Printing
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
  • 566
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review
A Low-Cost, Flexible Pressure Capacitor Sensor using Polyurethane for Wireless Vehicle Detection
Detection of vehicles on the road can contribute to the establishment of an intelligent transportation management system to allow smooth transportation and the reduction of road accidents. Thus far, an efficient and low-cost polymer flexible pressure sensor for vehicle detection is lacking. This paper presents a flexible sensor for vehicle sensing and demonstrates a wireless system for monitoring vehicles on the road. A vehicle sensor is fabricated by sandwiching a polyurethane material between Aluminum top/bottom electrodes. The sensing mechanism is based on changes in capacitance due to variation in the distance between the two electrodes at an applied external pressure. A clear response against a pressure load of 0.65 Mpa is observed, which is the same pressure as that of the car tire area in contact with the road. Significantly, the sensor is easy to embed on the road line due to its mechanical flexibility and large size. A field test is carried out by embedding the sensor on the road and crossing the sensor with a car. Moreover, the signal displayed on the tablet indicates that the sensing system can be used for wireless detection of the axle, speed, or weight of the vehicle on the road. The findings suggest that the flexible pressure sensor is a promising tool for use as a low-cost vehicle detector in future intelligent transportation management.
  • 1371
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
A Review of Description Languages and Systems
Testing and validation of the functionalities and safety of automated vehicles shifted from a distance-based to a scenario-based method in the past decade. A number of domain-specific languages and systems were developed to support scenario-based testing.
  • 87
  • 29 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Technology in Railway Infrastructure Systems
Additive manufacturing technologies, well known as three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, have been applied in many industrial fields, including aerospace, automobiles, shipbuilding, civil engineering and nuclear power. However, despite the high material utilization and the ability to rapidly construct complex shaped structures of 3D printing technologies, the application of additive manufacturing technologies in railway track infrastructure is still at the exploratory stage. 
  • 183
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
APTs Applications in Non-Pavement Research
Accelerated pavement testing (APT) facilities are traditionally used for pavement evaluation under in-service conditions of traffic, environment, and other pavement design parameters. “APT is defined as the controlled application of a prototype wheel loading, at or above the appropriate legal load limit to a prototype or actual, layered, structural pavement system to determine pavement response and performance under a controlled, accelerated accumulation of damage in a compressed time period. The acceleration of damage is achieved by means of increased repetitions, modified loading conditions, imposed climatic conditions, the use of thinner pavements with a decreased structural capacity and thus shorter design lives, or a combination of these factors.
  • 88
  • 17 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Automatic Wheelchairs
Automatic wheelchairs refers to devices equipped with wheelchairs, which can move automatically. Automatic wheelchairs have evolved in terms of instrumentation and control, improving the mobility of people with physical disabilities. The different wheelchair control techniques are divided into two categories: sensor technology non-invasively placed on the user and wheelchair instrumentation.
  • 160
  • 26 Nov 2020
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Automobile Tires’ High-Carbon Steel Wire
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes or strands. These ropes are called steel cord. Steel cord can be of different constructions. To ensure a good adhesive bond between the rubber of the tire and the steel cord, the cord is either brass-plated or bronzed. The reason brass or bronze is used is because copper, which is a part of these alloys, makes a high-strength chemical composition with sulfur in rubber. For steel cord, the high carbon steel is usually used at 0.70–0.95% C. This amount of carbon ensures the high strength of the steel cord. This kind of high-quality, unalloyed steel has a pearlitic structure which is designed for multi-pass drawing. To ensure the specified technical characteristics, modern metal reinforcing materials for automobile tires, metal cord and bead wire, must withstand, first of all, a high breaking load with a minimum running meter weight. At present, reinforcing materials of the strength range 2800–3200 MPa are increasingly used, the manufacture of which requires high-strength wire. The production of such wire requires the use of a workpiece with high carbon content, changing the drawing regimes, patenting, and other operations. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a reduction in the cost of wire manufacturing. In this context, the development and implementation of competitive processes for the manufacture of high-quality, high-strength wire as a reinforcing material for automobile tires is an urgent task.
  • 453
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Automotive Security Models
As the intelligent car-networking represents the new direction of the future vehicular development, automotive security plays an increasingly important role in the whole car industry chain. On condition that the accompanying problems of security are proofed, vehicles will provide more convenience while ensuring safety. Security models can be utilized as tools to rationalize the security of the automotive system and represent it in a structured manner.
  • 172
  • 08 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Autonomous Driving Systems
Autonomous vehicles are increasingly becoming a necesAutonomous vehicles are increasingly becoming a necessary trend towards building the smart cities of the future. Numerous proposals have been presented in recent years to tackle particular aspects of the working pipeline towards creating a functional end-to-end system, such as object detection, tracking, path planning, sentiment or intent detection, amongst others. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to systematically compile all of these systems into a single proposal that also considers the real challenges these systems will have on the road, such as real-time computation, hardware capabilities, etc.
  • 184
  • 11 May 2021
Topic Review
Autonomous Vehicle
An Autonomous Vehicle (AV), or a driverless car, or a self-driving vehicle is a car, bus, truck, or any other vehicle that is able to drive from point A to point B and perform all necessary driving operations and functions without any human intervention. An Autonomous Vehicle is normally equipped with different types of sensors to perceive the surrounding environment, including Normal Vision Cameras, Infrared Cameras, RADAR, LiDAR, and Ultrasonic Sensors.  An autonomous vehicle should be able to detect and recognise all type of road users including surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic signs, road markings, and can segment the free spaces, intersections, buildings, and trees to perform a safe driving task.  Currently, no realistic prediction expects we see fully autonomous vehicles earlier than 2030. 
  • 243
  • 17 Feb 2021
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