Topic Review
Electric Vehicle Charger Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities
Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a linchpin for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third-party systems, and grid operators. 
  • 488
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Automobile Tires’ High-Carbon Steel Wire
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes or strands. These ropes are called steel cord. Steel cord can be of different constructions. To ensure a good adhesive bond between the rubber of the tire and the steel cord, the cord is either brass-plated or bronzed. The reason brass or bronze is used is because copper, which is a part of these alloys, makes a high-strength chemical composition with sulfur in rubber. For steel cord, the high carbon steel is usually used at 0.70–0.95% C. This amount of carbon ensures the high strength of the steel cord. This kind of high-quality, unalloyed steel has a pearlitic structure which is designed for multi-pass drawing. To ensure the specified technical characteristics, modern metal reinforcing materials for automobile tires, metal cord and bead wire, must withstand, first of all, a high breaking load with a minimum running meter weight. At present, reinforcing materials of the strength range 2800–3200 MPa are increasingly used, the manufacture of which requires high-strength wire. The production of such wire requires the use of a workpiece with high carbon content, changing the drawing regimes, patenting, and other operations. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a reduction in the cost of wire manufacturing. In this context, the development and implementation of competitive processes for the manufacture of high-quality, high-strength wire as a reinforcing material for automobile tires is an urgent task.
  • 486
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
High-Speed Railway
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded conventional lines with a speed up to 200 or even 220 km/h. HSR requires specially built trains with increased power to weight ratio and must have an in-cab signalling system as traditional signalling systems are incapable of above 200 km/h.
  • 474
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Autonomous Vehicles
An Autonomous Vehicle (AV), or a driverless car, or a self-driving vehicle is a car, bus, truck, or any other vehicle that is able to drive from point A to point B and perform all necessary driving functions, without any human intervention. An Autonomous Vehicle is normally equipped with different types of sensors to perceive the surrounding environment, including Normal Vision Cameras, Infrared Cameras, RADAR, LiDAR, and Ultrasonic Sensors.  An autonomous vehicle should be able to detect and recognise all type of road users including surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic signs, road markings, and can segment the free spaces, intersections, buildings, and trees to perform a safe driving task.  Currently, no realistic prediction expects we see fully autonomous vehicles earlier than 2030. 
  • 387
  • 11 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Charging Technology for Battery Electric Buses
The charging infrastructure has a key role in the implementation of battery electric buses (BEBs) in cities. BEBs only use off-board chargers, whereas the PEC to convert the three-phase AC power from the grid into DC power to charge the battery is located outside the BEB. These chargers allow higher charging power levels because they are not restricted in size and weight. Furthermore, since the driving range of a BEB is limited, a specific charging concept and interface is required to keep the BEB running during the day. This entry gives an overview of the existing charging interfaces and concepts and charger and PEC topologies to provide a reliable and efficient charging behavior.
  • 385
  • 18 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Quadruped Robot
The motion state of quadruped robot in operation changes constantly. Due to the drift caused by the accumulative error, the function of inertial measurement unit (IMU) will be limited.  Even though multi-sensor fusion technology is adopted, the quadruped robot will lose its ability to respond to state changes after a while because the gain tends to be constant. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a Strong Tracking Mixed-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (STMCKF) method. According to system characteristics of the quadruped robot, this method makes fusion estimation of forward kinematics and IMU track. The combination mode of Traditional Strong Tracking CKF (TSTCKF) and strong tracking is improved through demonstration. A new method for calculating fading factor matrix is proposed, which reduces sampling times from three to one, saving 66% of calculation time. At the same time, the state estimation accuracy is improved from third-degree accuracy of Taylor series expansion to fifth-degree accuracy. The proposed algorithm can automatically switch the working mode according to real-time supervision of the motion state and greatly improve the state estimation performance of quadruped robot system, exhibiting strong robustness and excellent real-time performance.
  • 345
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Radar Signal Processing Fundamentals
Knowledge of radar signal processing is essential for the development of a deep radar perception system. Different radar devices vary in their sensing capabilities. It is important to leverage radar domain knowledge to understand the performance boundary, find key scenarios, and solve critical problems. 
  • 302
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Energy level on SGV System
Automated industrial vehicles are taking an imposing place by transforming the industrial operations, and contributing to an efficient in-house transportation of goods. They are expected to bring a variety of benefits towards the Industry 4.0 transition. However, Self-Guided Vehicles (SGVs) are battery-powered, unmanned autonomous vehicles. While the operating durability depends on self-path design, planning energy-efficient paths become crucial. Thus, this paper has no concrete contribution but highlights the lack of energy consideration of SGV-system design in literature by presenting a review of energy-constrained global path planning. Then, an experimental investigation explores the long-term effect of battery level on navigation performance of a single vehicle. This experiment was conducted for several hours, a deviation between the global trajectory and the ground-true path executed by the SGV was observed as the battery depleted. The results show that the mean square error (MSE) increases significantly as the battery’s state-of-charge decreases below a certain value.
  • 301
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Opto-physiological monitoring
Opto-physiological monitoring (OPM) considers biological tissue  as a set of optical media, study how light interacts within biological tissue, where the optical properties of the latter reflect the mechanical, physical and biochemical functions of the living organism. OPM includes optoelectronic sensor based contact monitoring and image sensor based remote monitoring.
  • 260
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
COVID-19 Effect on Supply Chains
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated disruptions in supply chains, traveling, businesses, and a loss of human lives that is being accounted for at least five million diseased. When the pandemic started, uncertainties, the lockdown of countries, and stay-at-home orders generated that millions of people made runs to grocery stores to buy essential products, the most distinctive being hygiene tissue, antibacterial formulations, and hand sanitizers. Then workers in essential processes in the medical, food, and manufacturing industries had to restart work to keep supply chains running. That generated further repercussions due to the infection of workers in multiple facilities, which created more considerable uncertainties. Universities and schools were mandated to close, and work-from-home orders were enacted in most sectors. In this entry, a summary of the essential factors, current situation, and future perspective regarding the effect generated by COVID-19 on the disruptions of supply chains is presented. The strategic sectors summarized are food and produce, transportation, paper products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, automobiles, minerals and technology companies. At two years since the WHO declaration, there are still shockwaves that show some unpredictability. Hence, companies and governments should look for strategical plans for preparing for this kind of event, making supply chains resilient or even immune to pandemics, natural disasters and trade wars.
  • 258
  • 22 Jan 2022
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