Topic Review
Traffic Incident Detection Algorithms
Traffic incidents have negative impacts on traffic flow and the gross domestic product of most countries. In addition, they may result in fatalities and injuries. Thus, efficient incident detection systems have a vital role in restoring normal traffic conditions on the roads and saving lives and properties. Researchers have realized the importance of Automatic Incident Detection (AID) systems and conducted several studies to develop AID systems to quickly detect traffic incidents with an acceptable performance level. AID can be categorized into four categories: comparative, statistical, artificial intelligence-based and video–image processing algorithms.
  • 76
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Forth Bridge Approach Railways
The Forth Bridge approach railways were railway lines constructed in the period 1887 to 1890 to form new main lines on the opening of the Forth Railway Bridge. The Forth Bridge opened in 1890 at the Queensferry crossing, and only local branch lines approached the location. The North British Railway built new main lines and upgraded some existing lines. The increase in passenger traffic resulted in serious congestion at Edinburgh Waverley, which was extended and modernised in the years following 1890.
  • 34
  • 21 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Youth Road Safety Behavior in Serbia
Road traffic crashes are a leading cause of death for young people. Aberrant driver behaviors, such as drink driving, speeding, not wearing seatbelts, non-compliance with traffic rules and aggressive driving, are key contributors to these crashes. Gender and urban/rural differences are also risk factors. Younger people have the highest road crash and fatality risk.
  • 92
  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
City Car
A city car (also known as urban car or a mini) is a small car designed to be used primarily in urban areas and conurbations. The term is used along with other terms for small cars including subcompact in North America. The Euro NCAP calls all small cars superminis. The European Commission refers to A-segment (Utility/city class: entry level small passenger car). In Japan , the kei car is a specific type of small car. The term microcar is loosely used for very small cars, some of which overlap city car classification.
  • 108
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
List of Maglev Train Proposals
This is a list of proposed maglev trains worldwide. Some proposals may have been rejected.
  • 89
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Mohawk Warrior
Mohawk Warrior (also known as Great Clips Mohawk Warrior since 2017) is a monster truck currently racing in the Monster Jam professional monster truck racing series. It is currently driven by Bryce Kenny, and was originally driven by George Balhan, former An Escalade driver, who debuted in 2010 during the Monster Jam World Finals XI Encore in the Obsession Chassis. It features one of the first trucks a decoration on the roof, which is a Giant Mohawk. The truck is also a successor to An Escalade. It also has an NGK Spark Plugs flag at the back of the truck, and was replaced by the Great Clips flags in 2017. It is sponsored by Great Clips since Bryce Kenny became the new driver of Mohawk Warrior after Balhan retired from Monster Jam.
  • 106
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Krauss-Maffei Transurban
Krauss-Maffei's Transurban was a 12-passenger automated guideway transit (AGT) mass transit system based on a maglev guideway. Development started in 1970 as one of the many AGT and PRT projects that followed in the wake of the HUD reports of 1968. Its selection as the basis of the GO-Urban system in Toronto in 1973 made it well known in the industry; it would have been the basis of the first large-area AGT mass transit network in the world. Technical problems cropped up during the construction of the test track, and the sudden removal of funding by the West German government led to the project's cancellation in late 1974. The Ontario government completed development and installation of a non-maglev version, today known as the Bombardier Advanced Rapid Transit.
  • 31
  • 17 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (usually referred to as the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, abbreviated MUTCD) is a document issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to specify the standards by which traffic signs, road surface markings, and signals are designed, installed, and used. These specifications include the shapes, colors, and fonts used in road markings and signs. In the United States , all traffic control devices must legally conform to these standards. The manual is used by state and local agencies as well as private construction firms to ensure that the traffic control devices they use conform to the national standard. While some state agencies have developed their own sets of standards, including their own MUTCDs, these must substantially conform to the federal MUTCD. The National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (NCUTCD) advises the FHWA on additions, revisions, and changes to the MUTCD. The United States is among the many countries that have not ratified the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. The first edition of the MUTCD was published in 1935, 33 years before the Vienna Convention was signed in 1968. The MUTCD differs significantly from the European-influenced Vienna Convention, and an attempt to adopt several of the Vienna Convention's standards during the 1970s led to confusion among many American drivers.
  • 95
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
New Mobility Agenda
The New Mobility Agenda is an international institution which, although a virtual and open collaborative project today, was originally set up by an international working group meeting at the Abbey de Royaumont near Paris in 1974 with the support of the Parisian OECD to challenge old ideas and practices in the field of urban transport through a long term collaborative program of information exchange, education and peer support. The Agenda today draws together the experience, expertise and support of more than four thousand individuals and groups worldwide in an open collaborative peer network. One of the original proponents of this approach, Professor Mikoto Usui then director of the OECD Development Centre, referred to it in the founding meeting at the "Abbé de Royaumont as an "invisible college". Drawing together the experience and expertise of more than four thousand individuals and groups worldwide, who are networked via a combination of websites, discussion groups and fora, and collaborative projects, the Agenda takes an approach to transportation planning, policy and practice that has gained considerable force over the last two decades—provides a leading-edge alternative to earlier (20th century) methods of looking at and providing mobility for people and goods in cities. The Agenda has received prestigious awards for its contributions, including the Stockholm Environment Challenge Prize (2000) and the World Technology Environment Award (2002). Like the sustainable transportation movement, to which it is closely related, it differs from previous methods (which in fact still dominate planning, policy, investment and operations in most parts of the world) in that it takes a global or broad systemic approach to the challenges of how to get around in cities, and is especially sensitive not only to pure transport efficiency (which traditionally is interpreted in pure engineering terms as speed and volume of vehicle throughput) but equally to matters of sustainable development, pollution and environmental impacts—including matters relating to climate change, the reduction of Greenhouse gases, resource efficiency, energy conservation, public health, both personal and public economics, overall time savings, public spaces, and quality of life in communities, including relations between people in public spaces – with particular attention to social justice and the unmet needs of women, children, and others with mobility or economic or health disadvantages which are not being properly served in our present mainly car-based systems and thinking, in which other forms of transport, including public transport, play only residual roles.
  • 38
  • 09 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Ammonia and Hydrogen Energy Utilization in Road Transportation
The crisscross progress of transportation and energy carries the migrating track of human society development and the evolution of civilization, among which the decarbonization strategy is a key issue. Traffic carbon emissions account for 16.2% of total energy carbon emissions, while road traffic carbon emissions account for 11.8% of total energy carbon emissions. Therefore, road traffic is a vital battlefield in attaining the goal of decarbonization. Employing clean energy as an alternative fuel is of great significance to the transformation of the energy consumption structure in road transportation. Hydrogen and ammonia are renewable energy with the characteristics of being widely distributed and clean. Both exist naturally in nature, and the products of complete combustion are substances (water and nitrogen) that do not pollute the atmosphere. Because it can promote agricultural production, ammonia has a long history in human society. Both have the potential to replace traditional fossil fuel energy. 
  • 93
  • 30 Sep 2022
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